Part IV B – Branding
Chapter 9: Challenges and Opportunities in a Branding Context
9.1.1. The CBBE Model
The CBBE model (see figure 10) by Keller (2008) provides an approach to create customer based brand equity, where customers have a high level of awareness and holds strong favourable associations with the brand. This should be achieved through a sequence of steps:
1. Identity, 2. Meaning, 3. Response, and 4. Relationship (ibid). However, Keller neglects to integrate the organisation into to the value creating process, which is why we also look at the Brand Value Delivery Model put forward by Jones (2009). He argues that customer value is created in the services that are associated with the brand, thus delivering brand value is something that requires the whole organisation to work together (ibid), which is also argued by Morsing et al. In addition, Keller does not account for the societal influence in his model, however in relation to our main theoretical framework it would both be influenced by the Societal Level and the Anti- Societal Level, as dynamic interdependency exists within the framework. We do acknowledge that a theory is not able to take everything into account, but we argue that this is crucial, as influence from the societal context will have an effect on brand value creation, as Discourses alter the meaning of elements such as attributes, feelings, imagery, and the needs and wants of the consumers. In contrast, Jones argues that understanding the different processes of creating customer value should be done in relation to the market, thus accounting for the societal context in his framework. We will thereby seek to integrate these models into our theoretical framework as they complement one another on crucial elements. Our point of departure will however be the CBBE model, as it breaks down vital components in relation to building brand value as opposed to the Brand Value Delivery Model that offers a more overall framework.
80 Figure 10: The CBBE Model
Source: Keller 2008
The CBBE model consists of several sub-dimensions of different brand building blocks, where the left side of the model represents a more rational route of brand building and the right side the more emotional route. According to Keller, Resonance should be the goal for all branding, because it means that the customer-brand relationship is so strong that the consumer feels “in-sync” with the brand. The result is a strong competitive advantage that is not easily copied. However, it would require equal attention to both sides of the model, and it takes time to build (Keller 2008).
1. Identity Salience
Brand Salience is the first step in the model and important for any brand in order to succeed.
It determines the brand’s category, but also measures brand knowledge and top-of-mind awareness; both necessary for consumers to know which needs and wants this brand can fulfil (ibid).
= what about you and me?
3. Response = what about you?
2. Meaning = what are you?
1. Identity = who are you?
Intense, active, loyalty
Positive, accessible reactions
Strong, favorable &
Deep, broad brand awareness Salience
81 2. Meaning
A brand must satisfy customers’ needs in order to succeed. Performance is about the functional needs of the brand, i.e. how well the features of the brand differentiate it from others. According to Keller five types of attributes usually underpin Brand Performance:
• Primary ingredients and supplementary features.
• Product reliability, durability, and serviceability.
• Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy:
• Style and design
He further argues that if brands do not performance on these attributes, it becomes difficult to move up and closer at creating Resonance (ibid).
Brand Imagery is an emotional building block utilizing perceptions and associations depending on the needs of the consumer, such as psychological or social needs. Consumers can form Imagery associations based on their own experience with the brand, or indirectly through branding or other information sources, e.g. word-of-mouth, NGOs etc. (ibid).
Imagery is about creating brand personality in order to make people get the right associations when seeing or hearing about the brand. This is also argued by Eder-Hansen (2011), as he states that it is crucial to use positive storytelling and associations so the consumers can see that they can actually make a difference, hence decreasing Proximity (Jones 1991).
Imagery and brand personality are however not always consistent. Many brands have experienced being associated with the wrong attributes. This could be due to the fact mentioned above, namely that consumers are able to form Imagery associations based on their own experiences with the brand. It is also in line with Jones, as he states that brand Touch Points e.g. retail stores, employees, co-branding, sponsorships etc. are where the brand value is created (Jones 2009).
82 Further, Performance and Imagery correlate with the Mental Markers in relation to the Supra-Complex Decision-Making process, as the Mental Markers are any mental construct, i.e.
price, label, brands, self-perceptions etc. In short, it is anything that the consumers use in order to gain Mental Justification. (Hansen et al. 2006).
3. Response Judgements
Judgements are placed at the rational side of the model and amounts to the sum of the consumers’ perception after putting together their associations created from both Performance and Imagery. Generally, consumers make all kinds of Judgements about a brand, but Keller argues that there are four types of Judgements that are particularly important:
1. Brand Quality: How consumers perceive the quality of a brand is crucial. This is often based on appearance, familiarity, expectations, and distinctiveness; all with price in mind (Keller 2008). Kranker (2011) concurs with this argument, as he states that consumers’
identity creation through consumption is a very important factor, however, price is often a problem regarding CSR certified products. Additionally, he argues that we are only in the initial face of CSR certified products, hence the issue of cost will be eliminated in time.
2. Brand Credibility: How credible do consumers see your brand? Perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and likeability are of the essence (ibid). This dimension is crucial if a company wants to be perceived as socially responsible in the minds of the consumers. As argued by Kranker (2011) many companies admit that they are not experts, hence they engage in collaboration with NGOs or other experts, driving credibility in the minds of the consumers.
3. Brand Consideration: If consumers do not consider purchasing your brand, then quality and credibility are considered unimportant in the minds of the consumer, all else being equal.
Therefore, it is important to make the brand relevant for the target group to make them consider it (ibid).
83 4. Brand Superiority: To what extent do consumers think that this brand is better than its competitors? Brand superiority is about creating unique positive brand associations in the minds of the customers (ibid).
In relation to the Supra-Complex Decision-Making process judging the brand will only happen when consumers are motivated for doing so (Hansen et al. 2006), hence Judgments become subjective as the perceived complexity in the Supra-Complex Decision-Making process depends on the individual.
The next building block towards brand Resonance is Feelings, which is far less detailed than imagery. These are argued to be the emotional responses to the brand evoked by marketing communications and can be either positive or negative (Keller 2008).
According to Keller there are six important types of brand-building Feelings that have the consumers associate certain feelings with the brand (Keller 2008):
• Warmth – peacefulness or sense of calm.
• Fun – joyous and amused.
• Excitement – cool and sexy, or experiencing something very special.
• Security –safety and self-assurance and sometimes worries and concerns can be removed.
• Social Approval – favourable appearance, direct acknowledgment.
• Self-respect – pride or a sense of fulfilment.
4. Relationship Resonance
The final step on Keller´s model is Resonance, which describes the level of relationship the customer has with the brand. It is characterized by the intensity of the psychological bond that exists between the customer and the brand. Strong Resonance will only exist if a company successfully has built both sides of the model (ibid).
84 However, keeping in mind that some of the brand building blocks are subjective, brand resonance might be difficult to achieve, thus integrating other dimensions such as the organisation, customers, and societal context, could ensure a more consistent brand value delivery in the minds of the consumers.