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teaching in Occupational therapy education and


Academic year: 2022

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Innovation focused

teaching in Occupational therapy education and


Jacob Madsen

Lecturer, Department of Occupational therapy University College of Northen Denmark, Aalborg


ENOTHE – – – – Corüna Corüna Corüna Corüna ---- 16.10.2009 16.10.2009 16.10.2009 16.10.2009


Innovation and occupational therapy

Literature is incomplete!

Limited to statements about occupational therapy as a profession should think

innovatively to meet the rapid


Graham (1983) The value of

creative problem solving within occupational therapy.

Hagedorn Occupational

innovatively to meet the rapid changes happening both

nationally and worldwide, as well as invitations to develop the most future proof practice.

(Law, 2004. Hinojosa,2007.

Blanche, 2007. Schmid, 2004)

(1995) therapists as being inventive therapists-

Reilly (1962), Mattingly and Fleming (1994) Kielhofner


Creativity is a fundamental source in the practice of occupational therapy.


Innovation and occupational therapy

Creative way to think and reason on if the profession will continue to have influence.

New forms of problem solving practice.

Move beyond the usual and perhaps automated (traditional)

-Acceptance of more than one set of rules for exercise of the profession

-Learn from how other innovative subjects perceive and look world.

Expand range of interventions in response to questions about the

renewal and adapting to rapid development.

study and processing templates

Not necessarily use the

latest technology or strategies, but rethink the basic elements that represents the profession.


Seek inspiration for new thinking.

Not necessarily use the

latest technology or strategies, but rethink the basic elements that represents the profession.

(Hinojosa, 2007. Law, 2004)


The question is:

Do we use the right forms and methods of creativity within occupational therapy to become innovators, and how can we get inspired by other professions

get inspired by other professions

concerning creativity and innovation ?


Southern Indian Monkeytrap


Southern Indian Monkeytrap

Value convulsion

Blocking because of values

Inability to reassess

Close relationship

with former and

current values.



- Innovare (latin) which means the formation or renewal, with focus on the development of a new idea to realization in practice as a goal.

- A label used to describe something newmade.

- Something that have not been before.

- The result of a proces (group or individuals)

- A discipline developed from the shadow of invention.

- Business and civic key term.

- Knowledge originates from innovation in the private sector - Knowledge originates from innovation in the private sector

- Central to the different understandings of innovation to a new idea would have a real use and create value.

- Achieved in theory through the processes that create, develop and offer new ideas life!

- If you want to achieve and do something revolutionary new within a given area, one can not expect to happen if you do as usual. (Bekke et al, 2007)

(Cunningham, P.


(Mulgan, 2007) (Digmann, A. et al 2006)

(Gilmartin, M. 1999) (Lybecker,2007)



Challenges in connecting and

facilitate innovation in the public Sector.

Majority of occupational

(Bekke et al, 2007) (Cunningham, P. 2005) (Mulgan, 2007)

(Digmann, A. et al 2006) (Gilmartin, M. 1999)

Traditionbound and hierarchical

Majority of occupational therapists are employed in the public sector


require innovation

in the public sector


Innovation in the public sector

Happens in spite of the structure of the public sector and not because of it.

The public sector is opposite to the private sector, subject to other requirements and conditions, and the sector is described as without the assumptions required for the basis of



”In business, organisations need to innervate – or die. In the public sector it is unlikely that organizations will collapse due to lack of Innovation”

(Mulgan, 2007)


Two ”innovationroads”

- Incremental innovation

- Radical innovation


Incremental innovation

- Meaning gradual growth (Lybecker, 2007)

- Minor innovations on already existing skills,

Short time to develop and deploy in organizations And also has a low risk


already existing skills,

processes, methods and

products, improved or used

in a new way. (Bekke et al, 2007)


Radical innovation

- Conversely, radical innovation is described as a kind of innovation that turns upside down the usual, and keep something completely new and unprecedented by


(Bekke et al, 2007.

Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003)

High-risk and difficult work and Implementation processes

(Lybecker, 2007) To do tomorrow what was unthinkable yesterday

Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003)

- Connections between already existing values, concepts and technologies which have not previously been associated.

(Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003)


5 types of innovation

Product Innovation Process Innovation

Innovation of new

products, for example.

Electronic health record or devices .

Innovation of

working practices or governance practices

Client focus and creativity is our forces – lets use them!

Service Innovation Userdriven innovation Research Driven


devices . practices

Services such.

Improved home- procedures

The source is knowledge about the users needs + the ability to meet these need through innovative thinking

(Digmann et al, 2006. Lybecker, 2007. Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003)


Humans have an innate creative

capacity, as reflected by a biological need for creative expression. (Wilcock,


Creativity is expressed through

everyday activities such as work and have a major impact on individual health and wellbeing. (Schmid ,2004)

Creativity is all about putting things and ideas that have not previously been

associated, in connection with each other, in order to achieve innovation = creative idea will have value. (Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003 C.Byrge and S. Hansen


Creativity is the ability to generate new

Creativity is getting the idea – innovation is making it happen

health and wellbeing. (Schmid ,2004)

Creativity is not reserved for artists, which otherwise is a general

understanding, but that creativity can be linked to all individuals and all aspects of individual lives. (Wilcock,


Creativity is the ability to generate new ideas and approaches. (Sejr, J, H Olling R, S. 2003 C.Byrge and S. Hansen 2008)

Innovation is the ability to use creativity in a way that creates value. (for

organizations or users / citizens)

Creativity is a fundamental and crucial factor for innovation (Gilmartin, 1999,

Hinojosa, 2007, Lybecker, 2007, Bekke et al, 2007.


Creativity is unlimited application of Knowledge.

We use all our knowledge, and not only knowledge obtained through education ect.

Lateral and

Horizontal thinking

C.Byrge and S. Hansen (2008)

All fundamental to get on

to the Creative Platform


3D cases -

Totally focus the participant’s consciousness onto one task

Simultaneous and deliberate use of Brain Body and Attitude Perceive differently and to

change behaviour

Stimulates blood circulation in the brain, resulting in more energy for thinking and less fatigue.

The participants’

consciousness totally in the process + Knowledge

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


The mind as a mental library

To get on to the platform, it is vital to think about the brain as a mental library.

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


The mind as a mental library

If we use our mental library in groups in might look like this:

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


Shared knowledge without barriers

Here the mental libraries are identified as one huge library with no barriers between each of them, making it possible for knowledge to flow freely.

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


Parallel thinking

Parallel Parallel Parallel

Parallel thinking thinking thinking thinking creates creates creates creates concentration concentration concentration concentration

- Parallel thinking is to focus the thinking of both the

individual and all the participants in a group towards one task at a time.

- Parallel thinking divides the process of a main task into multiple subtasks.

- These subtasks are then given to the participants

collectively, so that all participants are solving the same subtask at the same time - they are thinking in parallel upon the same task.

- Parallel thinking maximizes the sensitivity of the thinking about a particular area or field.

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


Task focused

Task Task Task

Task focused focused focused creates focused creates creates motivation creates motivation motivation motivation

- It is important to be 100% aware on the focus of the task.

- It is by structuring the process and dividing the main task into smaller subtasks.

- Participants are allowed focus so much on the task that - Participants are allowed focus so much on the task that

they lose track of time, that they lose track of colleagues, that they lose track of themselves.

- The facilitator should prepare all methods and all

exercises beforehand, to avoid the participants to start thinking about alternative methods and alternative


C.Byrge and S. Hansen (2008)


No judgement

No No No

No judgement judgement judgement judgement creates creates creates confidence creates confidence confidence confidence


The key to reduce the fear of making mistakes is to remove any kind of judgement in the group.

- On The Creative Platform there is no room for judgement.


- On The Creative Platform individual ideas are never positioned but any idea is considered as a building block to build on.

- It is not discussed if anything could have been done better.

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


Diversified thinking

Lateral and Lateral and Lateral and

Lateral and Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal thinking Horizontal thinking thinking thinking creates creates creates the right creates the right the right the right use use use use of of of of knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge....


The pillar is introduced as the support for getting new ideas on demand at any given point during the course.

- Making sure that as much of the existing memory is applied to a situation.

applied to a situation.

- Creates a huge focus on new knowledge constructions, and less focus on existing knowledge constructions.

- Using existing knowledge (from previous studies) and experiences to create new ideas (knowledge).

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


The brain as a mental library


Bears Football

Toothbrushing Dance



Helicopters Dance

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)

"The Law of associated memory”


In Alaska there are significant problems with ice accretion of high voltage cables!


high voltage cables!


We can put Yes, we just

need them to climb the

The bears can

shake of the ice

The helicopters can fly low over the high voltage wires and blow There are

many bears in Alaska

String of ideas

Yes and the meat we fly out by


We can put heating


around the cables

We hang

meat up into the masts as bait

to climb the masts and shake them

wires and blow the ice?

There must be positioned fuel depots in the area for the helicopters

How about

burning of

the ice off

with petrol?


Idea Idea

Idea Idea

Idea Idea

Idea Idea

String of ideas

Each time a new idea developes a new one will follow.

Idea Idea


Idea Idea

Idea Idea

Idea Idea






Ideas = knowledge in use

- An idea is situation-specific knowledge - Ideas should not be judged.

- The purpose of an idea is always to get one more idea…and one more and….

more idea…and one more and….

- Follow the energy of ideas - not the logic!

- An ideaconcept is a collection of ideas which suggest a possible solution.

C.Byrge and S.

Hansen (2008)


Lateral thinking (Dr. de Bono)

- In vertical digging (thinking) we dig the hole even deeper.

- In lateral thinking we dig a new hole a new place (think in a new direction) and we dig even more holes do discover more possible ways og thinking.


. "You cannot dig a hole in a different place by digging the same hole


. "You cannot dig a hole in a different place by digging the same hole deeper."

2. "Lateral Thinking is for changing concepts and perceptions instead of trying harder with the same concepts and perceptions."

3. "In self-organizing information systems, asymmetric patterns are formed.

Lateral Thinking is a method for cutting across from one pattern to another."

(De Bono, E. 1986, 1970),


“The solution to your problem has

already been found already been found

somewhere else!”

Genrich Altshuller -TRIZ


Horizontal thinking is to search for solution principles elsewhere:

Towards other horizons (or new valleys)

•...knowledge may provide the building blocks out of which


Suggestions +

possible solutions

building blocks out of which new ideas are constructed (Weisberg 2007)

•It is the retrieval of existing structures from memory that makes it possible to create new ideas (Smith 1995;

Perkins 1981; Ward 1994)


Related abstract issues: Braking under high speed

Practical problem:

Wheels blocking


Breaking System



Steal principles!

Ask yourselves:

- Where has the problem already been solved?

- Can we use some of the principles here?

- Who is the best in the world of doing this?

- And what is the principle behind this / that?

(humans,things, animals, plants, ect)



reflexive knowledge about occupational





Vertical thinking Horizontal thinking




Lateral thinking


Dear OT-Innovators (in a time and world where change is rapid):

- Do you teach your students to think in lateral and horizontal directions?

- Do you ensure safe environments with no judgement for the students to get and develop ideas?

- Do you celebrate and support the ideas towards realization?

- Do you celebrate and support the ideas towards realization?

- Do you celebrate and use allready exiting knowledge as a foundation for solving problems towards innovation?

- Are you aware of your own value convulsions?


” The world we have created today as a result of thinking thus far, has

problems which cannot be solved by


problems which cannot be solved by thinking the way we thought when

we created them”

Albert Einstein


Thank you ☺

And have a nice day!

And have a nice day!



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Occupation.Journal of Occupational Science, Vol.14, No.1, pp 21-92.

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unlimited application of knowledge In interdisciplinaty and intercultural groups”

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