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13 Impact on the cooperative members
A large body of literature and research exist on the subject of mergers in publicly-held com-panies but fewer studies have been found on mergers between cooperative societies. Measur-ing the impact on cooperative members from a merger is often more complex than measurMeasur-ing the impact on stockholders in publicly-held companies, as the cooperative members receive a combination of economic benefits from the cooperatives in which they function as both own-ers and suppliown-ers.
Page 108 of 131 The penalty on the supplementary payments may for some members in Tican result in deficits due to farmers already being under pressure from low quoted prices due to the fall in market prices and in extreme cases could result in shutting down parts of their operations as ex-pressed by a cooperative member of Tican (dr.dk & Jensen, 2015). For others, the penalty could result in the cooperative member opting out of the merger due to the long term profit not outweighing the loss during short term operations, as reflected in the horizon agency problem. This issue, while not directly addressed, is expected to be marginal as the potential slaughterhouses, not counting Danish Crown or Tican, available to produce the member’s pigs are limited.
Henrik Jensen, a cooperative member of Tican, argues that despite risking deficits and short term losses, the merger with Danish Crown is the lesser of two evils, as the alternative could cause them to lose their entire share capital which had already been reduced in 2014 to achieve a competitive supplementary payment (dr.dk & Jensen, 2015). Furthermore, after the two-year leveling out period, the members will be fully integrated in a much more profitable company and should receive a higher dividend on their investments than Tican could achieve.
The stock-for-stock merger at a value of equity minus a discount of 50 mDKK implies a con-version rate of less than 1 to 1. Thus one stock, or cooperative member, in Tican is worth less than one in Danish Crown in terms of market value on equity creation. In other words, the 582 mDKK equity of Tican is only attributed a value of 532 mDKK during the merger, im-plying a conversion ratio of 1 : 0.94 in Danish Crown’s favor, with one cooperative member in Tican being worth 6% less than one in Danish Crown which is significant given the aver-age member on Tican actually providing a larger annual delivery than one Danish Crown.
Figure 13-2: Ownership changes through levelling-out period assuming no equity growth
Ownership ratio, Tican
Ownership ratio, Danish Crown
Equity, Danish Crown members
Equity, Tican members
8.3% 7.6% 8.1% 8.3%
91.7% 92.4% 91.9% 91.7%
2014 2015 2016 2017
Page 109 of 131 Figure 13-2 illustrates how the equity discount affects the ownership share in Tican and Dan-ish Crown, respectively. The infused equity of 582 mDKK equals a total of 8.3% of the total book value of equity in the consolidated company, however after the discount of 50 mDKK is reduced to an ownership share of only 7.6% for the cooperative members of Tican.
The equity discount of 50 mDKK and the penalties of 0.25 DKK and 0.10 DKK per kg, re-spectively, should not be equated with two different effects but rather one and the same as shown in Table 13-1 below. Based on a total production of 142.1 million kg in Tican and the volume growth estimated in the stand-alone section of Tican the volumes of 2015 and 2016 can be estimated. The additional equity infusion of 0.25 DKK per kg 142.1 million kg result in additional equity infusions in 2015 of 35.5 mDKK and 14.3 mDKK by 2016 as the penalty decreases to 0.10 DKK per kg. The sum equates an equity discount of ~ 50 mDKK, disregard-ing variations in the volume growth estimated by the authors and Danish Crown.
Table 13-1: Changes in equity due to decreased supplementary payments
Year Production, million kg Penalty DKK/kg Additional equity infusion
2015 142.1 0.25 35.5
2016 142.5 0.10 14.3
The cooperative members will be on equal terms after a two-year levelling out period. The discount on equity serves to protect the cooperative members of Danish Crown from risks and pitfalls of the merger, which were argued to be substantial in the sensitivity, scenario and gen-eral risk assessment section of this thesis. The stock-for-stock merger structure ensures that the risk (and reward) is shared by the acquiring shareholders and the selling shareholders in contrast to a cash-financed transaction in which the acquirer bears the full risk. More precise-ly, in stock transactions the synergy risk is shared in proportion to the percentage of the com-bined company the acquiring and selling shareholders each will own (Rappaport & Sirower, 1999).
The members of Tican will face a short term penalty but will after a two-year period be fully integrated members in a much more profitable company. The motivation from Danish Crown’s cooperative members is less straight forward, as the cooperative members will face increased risk from merging with Tican, albeit an equity discount is introduced to said risk.
The exact outcome of the merger on the cooperative members is analysed in-depth below.
Page 110 of 131 should be in a more lucrative position following the merger, or there would be little incentive to complete the transaction. The pre- and post-merger ratios for each cooperative member are determined and compared to analyze whether the members are better or worse off from the merger. When estimating the pre-merger ratios of Tican, the authors apply the estimated WACC of Tican of 9.38% as derived in appendix 46. The application of the WACC of Danish Crown of 6.40% would, in this case, be incorrect, as it would allocate a higher value creation to Tican than actually realizable by the company in an actual fair stand-alone scenario.
Table 13-2 below shows the book value of equity, divided among total cooperative members, which is significantly larger for Tican than Danish Crown, that does not come as a surprise due to equity in agricultural cooperatives being based on patronage, where the average mem-ber in Tican has a higher delivery of pork in kg per year (Danish Crown, 2014b; Tican, 2014a).
Table 13-2: Key ratios per cooperative member in present values
Equity effects/member Tican DC Base case Scenario
Book value of Equity 582 6,423 7,005 7,005
Market value of Equity 606 21,380 23,267 23,054
Number of cooperative members 277 8,278 8,555 8,555
Book value of Equity/member 2.10 0.78 0.82 0.82
Market value of Equity/member 2.19 2.58 2.72 2.69
The table shows that cooperative members in both Danish crown and Tican enjoy a larger value creation on their market value of equity following the proposed merger. This is regard-less of whether the base case scenario or the weighted average market values of the five sce-narios discussed in section 12.4 are applied, albeit having a larger effect in the base case.
The cooperative members of Tican are better off in terms of value creation, as presented in a market value of equity increase of (2.72 − 2.19 ) = 0.53 mDKK, assuming the base case scenario, or 0.50 mDKK assuming the expected average outcome found in the scenario analy-sis. The effect is substantially smaller for Danish Crown reflected in an additional value crea-tion of only 0.14 mDKK on the market value of equity in the base case scenario. The syner-gies 440 mDKK divided among the cooperative members results in 0.50 mDKK per member and thus, despite Danish Crown accruing a higher percentage of the synergies in absolute
Page 111 of 131 This support the claim that Tican has to pay a premium to be merged into Danish Crown, re-flected in the equity discount of 50 mDKK accounting for roughly 8.6% of their total equity.
At the same time, the members of Tican are merged into a more profitable company which will benefit their on-going ability to create value on their equity infusions which at this point is non-existent based on a market-to-book value on current equity of only 1.04. This, in turn, may reduce the bankruptcy risk that many members in Tican had been facing, prior to the merger (Tican, 2014a).
Table 13-3: Present value of financial ratios per cooperative member
Present values/member Tican DC Base case Scenario avg.
EBITDA 11.12 11.38 11.73 11.70
EBIT 7.14 6.93 7.12 7.09
NOPAT 6.34 6.19 6.36 6.33
FCFF 4.58 4.26 4.42 4.40
Dividend 3.85 4.77 5.01 4.99
Table 13-3 reveal the present values of key financial ratios divided among the total coopera-tive members in Danish Crown and Tican, prior and post-merger. The table show that mem-bers in Danish Crown contribute to a higher EBITDA per member than Tican. Despite lower EBITDA per member, Tican manages to generate a higher operating profit per member, EBIT, than Danish Crown. The authors initiate an analysis to trace out the cause of the varia-tion and conclude the main driver to be depreciavaria-tion which is roughly 3% higher as % of rev-enue in Danish Crown than Tican. This implies that Danish Crown has more tangible assets subject to depreciation than Tican. Furthermore, the average output of pork per member is higher in Tican, measured in total pigs slaughtered, which compels the authors to conclude that the production technique of Danish Crown is simply less labour and more capital inten-sive than Tican’s. This observation is consistent with the production cost value drivers of Danish Crown of ~ 85% relative to the ~ 88% in Tican. A similar pattern was observed for the NOPAT and FCF ratio per member.
Secondly, the free present value of free cash flows per member declines for Tican in the event of a merger, but rises for Danish Crown. There are two possible explanations to this. First and foremost, the free cash flow per member is larger for Tican given the average cooperative member providing a larger annual delivery of Pork than Danish Crown, thus all else equal providing a higher operating profit per member. Additionally, the cooperative members of Tican are facing a significant penalty of 50 mDKK, roughly equal to 8.6% of their total book
Page 112 of 131 Finally, the supplementary payment (dividends) per cooperative members in present values, which is the ultimate ratio in measuring the on-going impact of the merger on the members, is found to increase during the proposed merger. This result is regardless of whether the base case scenario resulting in synergies of 440 mDKK or the expected average outcome of 227 mDKK is applied. Moreover, despite debt-repayments from section 10.5.2 and reductions in supplementary payments in the levelling out period, the cooperative members of Tican would expect to earn a larger perpetual dividend following the merger. The members of Tican could expect to earn, in present values, an additional 1.200.000 to 1.000.000 mDKK in dividends per member depending on whether the base case estimate or the scenario weighted average are applied, respectively. This result relies on the unlikely assumption that the individual members of Tican stay with Danish Crown forever.
The authors conclude that cooperative members in both companies are better off following the merger, regardless of whether the outcome is based on the base case scenario or the weighted average scenario. The average scenario and the base case both exhibited positive synergy es-timates, however as the isolated scenarios portrayed in section 12.4, there are substantial risk that this measure is negative which may terminate the potential benefits argued in this section.
The members of Tican are subject to a significant penalty to their supplementary payments, which are further decreased due to a series of up-front investments immediately after the mer-ger. Ultimately, despite strict costs for Tican associated with the merger, the cooperative members can expect an increased long-term dividend if they stay with Danish Crown. In other words, Tican has to pay but are ultimately compensated by being merged into a much more profitable company. This analysis is grounded in the base case scenario, although as scenario and sensitivity pointed, the realization of the business case may differ substantially from the estimated result of 440 mDKK. Thus, proper realization of the business case comes of im-portance if the estimated results are to be achieved.
14 Realizing the business case
The final area of research concerns the key considerations that should be included in the reali-zation of the business case. The decision to merge should not be based exclusively on finan-cial cost-benefits but also ensure that the merger fits the overall strategic plan of the business and that it is the best alternative. Upon having decided to go through with the transaction, the challenging process of ensuring that the business case of 440 mDKK is realized, and that the members of Tican are integrated successfully, begins. Empirical studies has found that
mer-Page 113 of 131 81). Synergies do not appear naturally and the people involved should actively seek to realize the synergies estimated above, especially considering the risks outlined above.
The first post-merger initiative should be an alignment of the strategic targets of the merger and to identify exactly what the objective of the merger is, to ensure that all employees and managers work towards a common goal (Rouse & Frame, 2009). Identification of key objec-tives reveal critical areas necessary for value creation including what, and how, actions to take in order to be successful. In the proposed merger with Danish Crown and Tican, the analysis found that critical objectives included ensuring raw material supply and improving cost effi-ciencies, rather than directly improving the strategic position of Danish Crown in the industry (Danish Crown, 2015b; Danish Crown, 2015c). Thus, using Koller’s (2015) of various value creating M&A motivations, both 1) improving performance of target and 2) consolidation to remove excess capacity can be used to characterize this merger.
As section 12.4 highlighted and confirmed by the scenario analysis, the business case is sub-ject to high risk, both from internal and external factors. Internally, in addition to focusing on the critical efficiency improvements, integration of processes, culture and employees are im-portant. Managerial initiatives to ensure a consistent and targeted integration could include a 100-day plan. Danish Crown has a long history and experience with M&A transactions and is expected to have expertise in best-practice integration. A dedicated team and resources should be identified to ensure that actions are taken to realize the synergies. The team should begin working already prior to the announcement of the proposed merger, laying out a plan for the outcome, negotiation and integration of the merger.
The single largest synergy estimated is the marginal efficiency gain from producing the pigs delivered to Tican on Danish Crown’s facilities. With marginal cost savings estimated at 0.80 DKK per kg, the savings approximate 100 mDKK per year. Since the business case is driven by the impact of cost realizations, the success of the merger relies heavily on proper integra-tion of these improvements. Given that Danish Crown and Tican to a large extent produce similar products it is possible that consolidation of other production plants would be benefi-cial, although not explored in this thesis. Realizing the cost synergies imply layoff of workers, which should naturally take place as early as possible, however not before steps has been tak-en to tak-ensure the continued production elsewhere and employees should be informed early to avoid unnecessary flight of employees due to uncertainty.
The sale of Thisted plant is another focus area, as the analysis found the requirements from the Danish Competition Authorities to have immense impact on the potential outcome of the
Page 114 of 131 sell the plant to a competitor, it can be required to deliver a fixed number of pigs to the poten-tial buyer, increasing competition and lowering top-line. Within the legal scope and demands from the Competition Authorities steps should be taken, to ensure that the net cost of selling Thisted plant is as low as possible. Nonetheless, the Competition Authorities have critical impact on the business case and little can be done to decrease the risk.
Cultural differences is a common risk n mergers. The issue is emphasized with Tican’s rela-tively active ownership structure that seizes to exist post-merger due to the dilution of control caused by an equity discount. The dedicated M&A team should work towards integrating the internal culture by involving line managers from both Danish Crown and Tican, selecting the most skilled and enthusiastic people who can contribute the most for the new company. Expe-rience shows that picking new leader should be done as soon as possible, in order to avoid flight of talent, customers and conflicts to the largest degree possible (Rouse & Frame, 2009).
Another risk from failed cultural integration was found to be cooperative members opting out of the merger agreement, which could potentially harm the attractiveness of the overall busi-ness case. In the light of the two-year levelling out period, this could be a challenge, since the economic conditions during the two years could cause the former Tican members to be alien-ated or wish to seek alternatives beyond the cooperative structure. The cooperative members have furthermore expressed concerns about not only being owners of a slaughterhouse, but increasingly an international food processer moving further away from the core activities.
In order to realize the benefits of the business case, Danish Crown should focus on aligning interests and avoiding conflicts, but also work actively towards realizing especially the cost synergies which will more or less determine whether the business case can be deemed suffi-ciently successful. Furthermore, alignment of interests for the cooperative members is of high importance for realizing the stabilization of raw material supply, especially if a new competi-tor were to purchase the Thisted plant, which could further increase the risk of members opt-ing out as a new viable alternative is introduced in the market.
14.1 Alternative investment opportunities
The investment decision cannot be seen in isolation; rather, it should be seen in comparison with the alternative opportunities available for Danish Crown. The business case is estimated to provide a positive result of 440 mDKK with an expected average outcome of 227 mDKK as found in the scenario analysis and impose no direct investment, beyond the on-going costs associated with integration such as time, resources and investments in capacity. The decision to merge should however be compared to what other investments opportunities that Danish
Page 115 of 131 Crown had at the time of the proposed merger. Since the authors have no concrete knowledge about other investment opportunities with information of this type being highly sensitive and confidential, a hypothetical argument is outlined.
An attractive alternative investment opportunity for Danish Crown could either be related to top-line activities, such as entry to a new market or products, or bottom-line in seeking lower cost of production.
First, looking towards top-line activities, Danish Crown has a large presence in the mature European markets, but the growth in world consumption of meat is largely driven by develop-ing or transition countries, with China in particular drivdevelop-ing a large part of the development.
One argument could thus be for Danish Crown to seek investment opportunities in new and growing markets rather than Denmark, where the majority of the market (77%) already be-longs to Danish Crown. However, investing in countries such as China might pose great bene-fits, but certainly also higher risks than the investment with Tican, with difference in cultural fit, consumer preferences, quality, lack of critical knowledge on the market and governmental issues posing great risk.
Another investment opportunity could include product development of new products, i.e. ex-tending the value chain even further and focusing more on processed food than fresh meat.
The CEO of Danish Crown had already explored the opportunities to expand into more pre-mium products even further (Danish Crown, 2016b). Downstream value-adding processing in the processed food markets often has higher margins. Investing, either through M&A or joint ventures, in another company with focus on processed foods that Danish Crown does not cur-rently possess, could increase the revenue and diversify the portfolio, ultimately decreasing the risk towards consumer behavior and demand for the underlying products of Danish Crown. Heavy focus on processed food might, however, pose challenges with the ownership structure with operations moving further and further away from the member’s core competen-cies, namely breeding pigs.
The investment opportunity in Tican should also be compared with other potential acquisition targets that may provide an even better business case for Danish Crown. With Danish Crown and Tican both located in Denmark, which is currently experiencing decreasing supply of pigs in terms of volume, and increased imports to Denmark, which are priced lower, impose a con-stant pressure on Danish Crown to decrease the level of costs in order to provide competitive prices without sacrificing margins. While the business case with Tican found that cost im-provements could be applied on the production of Tican, Danish Crown may explore the op-portunities of increasing their own marginal cost of production through investments in facili-ties in lower-cost countries. This would likely be restricted to Europe due to strict regulatory