• Ingen resultater fundet

Data Mindset

In document FROM DUST TO DATA (Sider 62-66)

5.3 Culture

5.3.2 Data Mindset

In order to be able to generate value with a data-driven approach, an organization does not solely have to build the technical prerequisites, it also has to establish the corresponding culture, as described above. From a technical perspective, the museum is in the process of building the structures that enable Big Data analysis, which includes, as mentioned in the definition of Big Data (cf. chapter 2), the consolidation of different data formats. This is illustrated when one of the managers explains: “So actually, we could put apples and pears and bananas and convert [them] into the same data structure. That’s actually what we have been working on for few years to create this fundament.” (Int. 2). By building these technical data infrastructures, the museum follows a strategy proposed by Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier (2013) that was mentioned earlier: making data sets compatible as well as suitable for different purposes so that organizations can unleash the option value of their data. Besides the technical requirements, Rydén et al. (2017) identify the managerial mindset as an enabling or limiting factor of the successful use and implementation of Big Data technologies. In line with this, we will in the following refer to this managerial understanding as the data mindset which will affect the organizational culture.

One manager offers the implementation of the analysis application as an example of the changing culture towards a data-mindset in the museum when he/she states: “that has definitely changed. I mean, if I was to suggest something like this four years ago, they would have looked at me and said ‘what are we going to use that for?’ I mean, ‘we know what people want’ - and that’s changing” (Int. 3). Another manager acknowledges that Big Data now could be understood as a mainstream phenomenon and that “the real value creation of Big Data is getting more and more profound” (Int. 1). However, this manager makes a differentiation in his/her evaluation of the phenomenon. On the one hand, he/she describes it as a “mainstream phenomenon” to the general world. On the other hand, in the organizational context of the National Museum, he/she states that

“Big Data is to us not bleeding edge, but maybe it's cutting edge” (Int. 1). Despite this acknowledgment - that the data mindset might not be sufficiently proliferated in the museum yet - the manager appears to be optimistic about that the effectiveness of data-driven solutions will cause a wider adoption of Big Data analytics, especially in a research context:

“It’s like using a crane for building a house, why wouldn’t you? If you have cranes you are able to imaging different kinds of houses, because it opens up new kinds of very practical opportunities or practicalities as well. So this is how I see that in relation to research – that using data, using digital methodologies, inviting developers into research teams, for example, not with specific goals necessarily, but just as a resource, so that they don’t have to go through it all on a very manual level. That would be super cool.” (Int. 1)

Erevelles et al. (2016) support the theory that Big Data can substantially influence how research is approached. According to Erevelles et al. (2016), Big Data coupled with a (partial) ignorance-based view, i.e. a focus on the things that are unknown, allows researchers to pose new questions that are not based on established knowledge which ultimately might lead to novel scientific discoveries. In order to do so, researchers need a data-mindset, which in this case primarily refers to an open-mindedness and the acknowledgment that creativity facilitates the discovery of new, interesting questions and consequently valuable insights (Erevelles et al., 2016). However, Erevelles et al. (2016) point out that organizations tend to rely on existing knowledge and past experiences, which in turn can hinder creativity and the development of innovative ideas (Erevelles et al., 2016). Therefore, Erevelles et al. (2016) recommend using Big Data analysis as a research tool in combination with a (partial) ignorance-based, inductive view. The comments made by one manager regarding the approach to research in the museum are very much in line with these ideas:

“So doing data analysis across huge datasets to enable us to ask new questions, rather than posing new answers – I think [...] that’s one of the key ways to show the value of data analysis on a bigger scale. It’s not about finding answers, it’s about finding questions - as I see it. And obviously cool research projects are based on good questions. The good answers, that’s something that comes later on, but on the outset it has to do with great and relevant questions and new kinds of questions. So there is a huge potential, as I see it” (Int. 1)

In addition to that, with the comment above this manager acknowledges that their might be some hidden value in the museum’s collection data that can be uncovered by using new ways of doing research and introducing Big Data Analytics to research.

As illustrated in the above, some of the managers in the museum display the data-mindset that is expected to build the cultural foundation for data-driven value creation. However, there are also limiting factors to the proliferation of the data-mindset in the organization. As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter the relevance of Big Data and related technologies has not reached all organizational units. One manager explains that “The maturity of using digital tools efficiently is not that high. So, there is really a potential on raising the knowledge of the users [employees] in using digital tools.” (Int. 2). According to the same manager, this lack of awareness also includes the top-management. However, their support is especially important because they make, as illustrated earlier, the strategic and financial decisions that guide the organization. This misalignment is addressed by Interviewee 2: “a larger investment would be needed and also a clear governance model […] If I tell the top management about a potential, they nod and accept that of course, but they do not allocate any extra resources for that purpose” (Int. 2). Another manager provides a suggestion regarding how the data-mindset could be further established in the museum in the future, also on a top management level:

“draw in digital expertise in the boards, in the boardrooms, in the management teams, [...] as a way to show the realization that this is becoming an evermore central piece of the puzzle in terms of running a modern, twenty-first century company, institution, organization.” (Int. 1)

Another way to establish a more data-driven mindset is introduced by Interviewee 3. He/she argues that some of the data that are collected are not analyzed because there is no incentive to do so in form of a target set out that the organization or department is measured against. Therefore, by

setting such targets, the ministry of culture or the top management of the museum could incentivize relevant departments or teams to use data analytics to a larger extent.

There are also projects that can potentially influence the data-mindset in the organization.

One manager presents the example of the annual hackathon ‘HACK4DK’ which the National Museum takes part in:

“It has been running annually within archives, museums, libraries, as a way of both showing that it is not necessarily impossible to do digital stuff. That’s kind of the mindset of many people that it is expensive, takes too long [laughs], doesn’t realize the initial goals of it - that’s a lot of the stories or narratives [...]; digital kind of tends to fall into that category. [Referring to the purpose of the hackathon] just to show that you are able to draw in creative, talented people for a weekend and when they present their project Sunday, you are actually able to see that something has been done and you can kind of get a sense of the idea that they have, because they have put it into realization and all” (Int. 1)

Another project that can be understood as an illustration of how the mindset shifts gradually towards a data-driven approach is the tracking system in the museum that was mentioned earlier. As one manager explains, this technical application was created “some years ago” as a proof of concept.

The management at that time, however, did not pursue this solution, which would have needed more funding, any further. Nevertheless, this perspective seems to have changed because the management recently has expressed interest in the tracking system and approached the department which was responsible for the initial implementation. Interviewee 2 explains his/her rationale for developing the proof of concept for the tracking system as follows:

“We had a proof of concept on the tracking solution, but it was actually not when we created or when we implemented it some years ago, we knew that the business was not mature at that time to use this solution, but when they came and asked how we do that, it was good for us to show we actually have a proof of concept here, we can log in, we can show you exactly where different kinds of visitors access their smartphones in the exhibitions, and then they worked further on with that.” (Int. 2)

Another manager elaborates on that example by stating that even though the museum has not yet used this system to support decision-making, based on the data it provides, they intent to do so -

“we want to and we are discussing it in terms of, for example, heat maps in galleries” (Int. 1).

These examples illustrate that not everyone is on the same page regarding the data-mindset in the museum. This is in line with Moore’s (2015) argumentation that the different stages of the Data Maturity Spectrum, which was mentioned earlier, do not have to be mutually exclusive. Thus, some managers might already display a mindset that is closer to the third and final stage of the spectrum, where insights from Big Data analysis are used to support managerial decision-making, whereas others are still in the first or second stage of data-driven decision-making. However, by pioneering a data-mindset and establishing relevant initiatives, these managers might support the distribution of such a mindset within the organization. The new interest in the tracking system could indicate that the increased focus on the visitor experience might function as a catalyzer for a broader distribution of the data-mindset within the museum. Therefore, the following dimension focuses on how the organization appears to be affected by this more visitor-central approach.

In document FROM DUST TO DATA (Sider 62-66)