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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

A guide to discuss ethical issues in digital research

Second edition

ETHICAL

CHALLENGES IN DIGITAL

RESEARCH

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

Ethical challenges in digital research

– A guide to discuss ethical issues in digital research Second edition

January 2020 Developed by

DIGETIK at Aalborg University as part of DIGHUMLAB Authors

Line Lisberg Christensen, Research Assistant Malene Charlotte Larsen, Associate Professor Layout

Steffen Madsen, DIGHUMLAB

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

I. Introduction to document

The ever-changing development of digital technologies and digital infrastructure makes it necessary for us as researchers to change approaches to digital research within the humanities. In terms of research ethics, we can no longer use traditional laws and guidelines that only match the non-digital world. In a time where it is necessary to change and re-think our ways of doing research, we bring to you this second version of Ethical Challenges in Digital Research to initiate discussions about ethical research and to help guide you in your digital research. The compound may serve you as a guideline to ethical research, a helpful tool to those in need of inspiration or merely as a list of literature that is relevant to your field, whether that is: big data, surveillance, privacy, games and gamification, ethics in studies with children and adolescents, health research, journalism, ethnographic studies, visual methods, vulnerable groups, web archives, economy, risky business for researchers or one of the many other categories in this collection of ethical digital research.

We initially created this document with the intention of helping scholars reflect and discuss the ethical dimensions of their digital research, whilst providing guidance and insight about how to deal with these issues. We have compiled a list of articles, papers, books, book chapters, guidelines and journals, which we believe can aid researchers and students alike.

In this second version, we have added more than 100 new literature results that have been spread across the categories. In addition, we have developed new categories that we believe are reflections of relevant and current fields in the academic world: Economy, Games/Gamification and Criminal/forensic case studies.

We have attempted to remain respectful and vigilant of the intention of each piece of literature, and great effort has been made to understand the intention and direction of the individual researchers. We gladly accept additional literature and proposals and we hope that our extensive work will provide you with ideas, insight and guidance to discuss ethical issues in digital research. Since developing this document, we have also decided to create a search-engine for your convenience. This you can find on DIGHUMLAB’s website, under the tab Learning Resources, or by clicking here.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

II. Relevant academic journals and scholars

We have also chosen to provide the readers of this document with a list of journals of relevance when searching for literature within the field of digital ethics. We especially wish to emphasize the newest addition to the Association of Internet Researcher (AoIR) website, namely their Ethical Guidelines 3.0, which you can access here.

 Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR).

 Ethics and Information Technology.

 First Monday.

 Research Ethics Review.

 Information Ethics.

 Information, Communication & Ethics in Society.

 International Journal of Internet Research Ethics.

In addition, we believe that the following authors can be considered central researchers within the field of digital ethics:

 Amanda Lagerkvist

 Anja Bechmann

 Annette Markham

 Charles Ess

 Christian Fuchs

 Elaine Doyle

 Elizabeth A. Buchanan

 Helen Nissenbaum

 Joseph Migga Kizza

 Katharina E. Kinder-Kurlanda

 Katrin Weller

 Michael Zimmer

 Pål Aarsand

 Stine Lomborg

Naturally, other journals may also be relevant, whilst other researchers and authors are relevant as well. These lists only represent a small number of interesting and inspiring authors, researchers and journals.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

Content

1. What is “digital ethics”? ...2

2. Big data ...7

3. Case studies ... 13

4. Challenges ... 32

5. Criminal/forensic case studies ... 51

6. Consent ... 54

7. Economy ... 64

8. Educational studies ... 66

9. Ethics in Journalism ... 69

10. Ethics in politics and legislation ... 74

11. Ethics in relation to businesses and companies ... 77

12. Ethics in relation to children and adolescents ... 80

13. Ethics in social relations ... 88

14. Ethnographic studies ... 99

15. Fabrication ... 106

16. Games/Gamification ... 109

17. Guidelines ... 112

18. Health research ... 122

19. Mixed, nice stuff ... 125

20. Original, innovative and changing of methods ... 131

21. Participatory methods ... 140

22. Privacy ... 147

23. Risky business for researchers... 158

24. Software and algorithms ... 162

25. Surveillance ... 166

26. Third-party tracking ... 170

27. Visual methods ... 172

28. Vulnerable groups ... 182

29. Web archives ... 190

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

WHAT IS

“DIGITAL

ETHICS”?

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

1. What is “digital ethics”?

Digital ethics has become a field of its own. When dealing with digital data we often find ourselves dealing with ethics from a distance: our connection with participants/subjects is often none-existent, because the participants are on the other side of the computer. To act

“ethically” will become inherently more challenging, because we need to rethink how to treat our participants when they are no longer in front of us. In the development of this second version of Ethical Challenges in Digital Research, we have revisited the category and added even more relevant literature in which digital ethics is practiced or researched.

While literature from authors such as Charles Ess (2014), Annette Markham (2015) and Christian Fuchs (2017) still reside in the category, we also welcome Eoghan Casey (2018) and Jeffrey T. Hancock (2019) to the category “What is Digital Ethics?”

Alderson P. (2004). Ethics. In Fraser, A., Lewis, V., Ding, S., Kellett, M. & Robinson, C. (Eds.) (2004). Doing Research with Children and Young People, pp.97–111. London: Sage Publications.

Allen, C. (1996). What’s Wrong with the “Golden Rule”? Conundrums of Conducting Ethical Research in Cyberspace. The Information Society 12 (2), pp.175-188.

Association of Internet Research (2012). Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research.

Accessed: 06-09-2018.

Boehlefeld, S. P. (2011). Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Cyberspace Research. The Information Society 12(2), pp.141-152.

Buchanan, E.A. & Zimmer, M. (2013). Internet research ethics. In Zalta, E. N. (Ed.) (2013).

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed: 30-10-2018.

Casey, E., Geradts, Z. & Nikkel, B. (2018). Transdisciplinary strategies for digital investigation challenges. Digital Investigation, 25 (pp.1-4), Elsevier BV. Accessed: 04-09- 2019.

Chari, T. (2017). Ethical pitfalls in the digital age: when the desire to “serve hot” gets in the way of verification. In Mhiripiri, N. A. & Chari, T. (Eds.) (2017). Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age, pp.25-43. Information Science Reference (ISR).

Clark, K., Duckham, M., Guillemin, M., Hunter, A., McVernon, J., O’Keefe, C., Pitkin, C., Prawer, S., Sinnott, R., Warr, D. & Waycott, J. (2018). Advancing the ethical use of digital data in human research: challenges and strategies to promote ethical practice. Ethics and Information Technology, 21(1) (pp.59-73), Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Accessed: 03-09-2019.

Doyle, E. (2017). Embracing qualitative research: a visual model for nuanced research ethics oversight. Qualitative research, 17(1), pp.95-117. Accessed: 28-09-2018.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

Dreyfus, H. (2001). On the Internet. New York: Routledge.

Ess, C. (2014). Central issues in the ethics of Digital Media. In Ess, C. (2014). Digital media ethics (2), pp.1-34. Malden, Massachusetts: Polity.

Franzke, A. S., Bechmann, A., Zimmer, M., Ess, C. & the Association of Internet Researchers (2020). Internet Research: Ethical Guidelines 3.0. Accessed: 02-12-2019.

Fuchs, C. (2017). From digital positivism and administrative big data analytics towards critical digital and social media research! European journal of communication, 32(1), pp.37-49. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Heider, D. & Massanari, A. L. (Eds.) (2012). Digital ethics: research & practice. New York:

Peter Lang.

Hancock, J. T. (2019). The Ethics of Digital Research. In Welles, B. F. & González-Bailón, S.

(Eds.) (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Networked Communication. London: Oxford University Press. Accessed: 03-09-2019.

Hongladarom, S. (2017). Internet research ethics in a non-western context. In Zimmer, M.

& Kinder-Kurlanda, K. (Eds.) (2017). Internet Research Ethics for the Social Age. New Challenges, Cases, and Contexts, pp.151-163. New York: Peter Lang. Accessed: 01-10- 2018.

Hoser, B. & Nitschke, T. (2010). Questions on ethics for research in the virtually connected world. Social Networks, 32, pp.180–186.

Jasanoff, S. (2016). The ethics of invention: technology and the human future. New York:

W. W. Norton & Company.

Johnson, D. G. (2001). Computer Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kizza, J. M. (2007). Computer Crimes. In Kizza, J. M. (2007). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, pp.239-262. London: Springer.

Kizza, J. M. (2007). Introduction to social and ethical computing. In Kizza, J. M. (2007).

Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, pp.1-18. London: Springer.

Kizza, J. M. (2007). Morality and the law. In Kizza, J. M. (2007). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, pp.19-36. London: Springer.

Kizza, J. M. (2007). New frontiers for computer ethics artificial intelligence, cyberspace, and virtual intelligence. In Kizza, J. M. (2007). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, pp.263-281. London: Springer.

Lipschultz, J. H. (2015). Social media communication: concepts, practices, data, law and ethics. Routledge.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

Mann, C. & Stewart, F. (2000). Internet communication and qualitative research – a handbook for researching online. SAGE publications.

Markham, A. N. (2006). Ethic as Method, Method as Ethic: A Case for Reflexivity in Qualitative ICT Research. Information ethics.

Markham, A. (2015). Produsing Ethics [for the digital near future]. In Lind, R. (Ed.) (2015).

Produsing Theory in a Digital World 2.0: The Intersection of Audiences and Production in Contemporary Theory (2), pp.247-366. Digital Formations, (99). Peter Lang.

Markham, A. & Buchanan, E. A. (2015). Internet research: ethical concerns. In Wright, J.

(Ed.) (2015). International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2), pp.606- 613. Elsevier Science.

Miko-Schefzig, K. & Reiter, C. (2018). Participatory Organization Research in the Context of the Police: Ethical Research with Vulnerable Groups Using the Example of Detention Centers. Qualitative social research, 19(3). Accessed: 4-10-2018.

McKee, H. A. & Porter, J. E. (2009). The ethics of Internet research: a rhetorical, case-based process. New York: Peter Lang.

Pentzold, C. (2017). 'What are these researchers doing in my wikipedia?': Ethical premises and practical judgment in internet-based ethnography. Ethics and Information Technology, 19(2), pp.143-155.

Shilton, K. & Sayles, S. (2016). "We Aren't All Going to Be on the Same Page about Ethics":

Ethical Practices and Challenges in Research on Digital and Social Media. 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2016-March, pp.1909-1918.

Accessed: 28-6-2018.

Tiidenberg, K. (2017). Ethics in Digital Research. In Flick, U. (Ed.) (2017). SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection. SAGE Publications.

Tiidenberg, K. (2018). Research ethics, vulnerability, and trust on the internet. In Hunsinger, J., Klastrup, L. & Allen, M. (Eds.) (2018). Second international handbook of internet research, pp.1-15. Dordrecht. Springer.

Van den Hoonaard, W. C. (2018). Autobiographical notes from inside the ethics regime:

some thoughts on how researchers in the social sciences can own ethics. Qualitative social research, 19(3). Accessed: 04-10-2018.

Whiteman, N. (2012). Undoing ethics: rethinking practice in online research. New York:

Springer.

Yanow, D. & Schwart-Shea, P. (2018). Framing "Deception" and "Covertness" in Research:

Do Milgram, Humphreys, and Zimbardo Justify Regulating Social Science Research Ethics?

Qualitative social research, 19(3). Accessed: 04-10-2018.

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Zook, M., S. Barocas, D., Boyd, K. Crawford, E. Keller, S. P. Gangadharan, A. Goodman, et al.

(2017). Ten simple rules for responsible big data research. PLoS Computational Biology 13 (3). Accessed: 28-09-2018.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

BIG DATA

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

2. Big data

The stream of data available online indeed qualifies as “BIG”: social media alone can provide us with countless amounts of both qualitative and quantitative data of movement, likes, shares, comments, posts and much more. Authors such as Michael Zimmer (2018), Annette Markham (2017), Dirk Helbing (2018), Christian Fuchs (2017), Katrin Weller (2015) and many other researchers have researched what it means to collect and process Big Data from online platforms and digital technologies.

Bancroft, A., Karels, M., Murray, Ó. M. & Zimpfer, J. (2014). Not being there: research at a distance with video, text and speech. In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?:

qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.137-154. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Barocas, S. & Nissenbaum, H. (2014). Big data's end run around procedural privacy protections. Communications of the ACM, 57(11), pp.31-33.

Bechmann, A. & Vahlstrup, P.B. (2015). Studying Facebook and Instagram data: The digital footprints software. First Monday, 20(12), 1. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Boyd, D. & Crawford, K. (2012). Critical questions for big data information.

Communication & society, 15(5), pp.662-679. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Brooker, P., Barnett, J. Cribbin, T. & Sharma, S. (2016). Have we even solved the first ‘big data challenge’? Practical issues concerning data collection and visual representation for social media analytics. In Snee, V., Hine, C., Morey, Y., Roberts, S. & Watson, H. (Eds.) (2016). Digital Methods for Social Science: an Interdisciplinary Guide to Research Innovation, pp.34-50. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Buchanan, E.A. & Zimmer, M. (2013). Internet research ethics. In Zalta, E. N. (Ed.) (2013).

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed: 30-10-2018.

Burkell, J. A. (2016). Remembering me: Big data, individual identity, and the psychological necessity of forgetting. Ethics and Information Technology, 18(1). Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Clarke, R. & Taylor, K. (2018). Towards responsible data analytics: a process approach. 31st BLED econference: digital transformation: meeting the challenges, june 17-20, 2018, Bled, Slovenia, conference proceedings. Pucihar, A., Kljajić Borštnar. M., Ravesteijn, P., Seitz, J. & Bons, R.

Collmann, J. & Matei, S. A. (Eds.) (2016). Ethical Reasoning in Big Data - An Exploratory Analysis. Springer.

Condie, J., Lean, G. & Wilcockson, B. (2017). The Trouble with Tinder: The Ethical Complexities of Researching Location-Aware Social Discovery Apps. In Woodfield, K.

(Ed.) (2017). The ethics of online research, 2, pp.135-158.

Fairfield, J. & Shtein, H. (2014). Big Data, Big Problems: Emerging Issues in the Ethics of Data Science and Journalism. Journal of mass media ethics, 29(1), pp.38-51.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

Ford, H. (2014). Big Data and Small: Collaborations between ethnographers and data scientists. Big Data & Society, 1(2), pp.1-3.

Fuchs, C. (2017). From digital positivism and administrative big data analytics towards critical digital and social media research! European journal of communication, 32(1), pp.37-49. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Fuller, M. (2015). Big data: new science, new challenges, new dialogical opportunities.

Zygon, 50(3), pp.569-582.

Gil de Zúñiga, H. & Diehl, T. (2017). Citizenship, Social Media, and Big Data. Social science computer review, 35(1), pp.3-9. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Goffey, A., Pettinger, L. & Speed, E. (2014). Politics, policy and privatization in the everyday experience of big data in the NHS. In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?:

qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.31-50. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Hammer, M. J. (2017). Research ethics in big data. Oncology nursing forum, 44(3), pp.293- 295.

Hand, M. (2014). From cyberspace to the dataverse: trajectories in digital social research.

In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?: qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.1-30. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Hasselbach, G. & Tranberg, P. (2016). Data ethics – the new competitive advantage.

Publishare.

Helbing, D. (2018). Societal, Economic, Ethical and Legal Challenges of the Digital Revolution: From Big Data to Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Manipulative Technologies. Towards Digital Enlightenment (pp.47-72), Springer International Publishing. Accessed: 04-09-2019.

Herschel, R. & Miori, V. M. (2017). Ethics & Big Data. Technology in society, 49, pp.31-36.

Hillyard, S. (2014). ‘Where no-one can hear you scream’: an analysis of the potential of ‘Big Data’ for rural research in the British context. In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?: qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.231-250. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Krotoski, A. K. (2012). Data-driven research: open data opportunities for growing knowledge, and ethical issues that arise. Insights - the UKSG Journal, 25(1), pp.28-32.

Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Larsson, A. O. (2015). Studying Big Data – ethical and methodological considerations. In Fossheim, H. & Ingierd, H. (Eds.) (2015). Internet Research Ethics, pp.141-156. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

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Light, B., Mitchell, P. & Wikström, P. (2018). Big data, method and the ethics of location: a case study of a hookup app for men who have sex with men. In Markham, A. N., Herman, A.

& Tiidenberg, K. (Eds.) (2018). Ethics as method. Accessed: 01-10-2018.

Lipschultz, J. H. (2015). Social media communication: concepts, practices, data, law and ethics. Routledge.

Lohmeier, C. (2014). The researcher and the never-ending field: reconsidering big data and digital ethnography. In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?: qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.75-90. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Luka, M. E. & Millette, M. (2018). (Re)framing big data: activating situated knowledges and a feminist ethics of care in social media research. In Markham, A. N., Herman, A. &

Tiidenberg, K. (Eds.) (2018). Ethics as method. Accessed: 01-10-2018.

Markham, A. (2016). OKCupid data release fiasco: It’s time to rethink ethics education.

Medium. Accessed: 18-06-2018.

Markham, A. N. (2017). Troubling the concept of data in digital qualitative research. In Flick, U. (Ed.) (2017). Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection, pp.511-523. London: Sage.

Markham, A. & Buchanan, E. A. (2017). Research ethics in context: Decision making in digital research. In Schäfer, M. T. & van Es, K. (Eds.) (2017). The Datafied Society: Studying culture through data, pp.201-209. Amsterdam University Press B.V.

McQuillan, D. (2018). People’s councils for ethical machine learning. In Markham, A. N., Herman, A. & Tiidenberg, K. (Eds.) (2018). Ethics as method. Accessed: 01-10-2018.

Metcalf, J., Boyd, D. & Keller, E. (2016). Perspectives on Big Data, Ethics, and Society.

Council for Big Data, Ethics, and Society. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Metcalf, J. & Crawford, K. (2016). Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide. Big Data & Society, 3(1), pp.1-14.

Oboler, A., Welsh, K. & Cruz, L. (2012). The danger of big data: Social media as computational social science. First Monday, 17(7). Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Pascalev, M. (2017). Privacy exchanges: Restoring consent in privacy self-management.

Ethics and Information Technology, 19(1), pp.39-48.

Pink, S. & Lanzeni, D. (2018). Future anthropology ethics and datafication: temporality and responsibility in research. In Markham, A. N., Herman, A. & Tiidenberg, K. (Eds.) (2018).

Ethics as method. Accessed: 01-10-2018.

Prabhu, R. (2015). Big Data – big trouble? In Fossheim, H. & Ingierd, H. (Eds.) (2015).

Internet Research Ethics, pp.157-172. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

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Redon, E. D. & Centi, A. (2019). Realities of conducting digital health research: Challenges to consider. Digital Health, 5, SAGE Publications. Accessed: 03-09-2019.

Schweitzer, L. A. & Afzalan, N. (2017). Four Reasons Why AICP Needs an Open Data Ethic.

American Planning Association. Journal of the American Planning Association, 83(2), pp.161-167. Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Segadal, K. U. (2015). Possibilities and limitations of Internet research: A legal framework.

In Fossheim, H. & Ingierd, H. (Eds.) (2015). Internet Research Ethics, pp.35-47. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Smith, R. J. (2014). Missed miracles and mystical connections: qualitative research, digital social science and big data. In Hillyard, S. & Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?: qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.181-204. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Steen-Johnsen, K. & Enjolras, B. (2015). Social research and Big Data – the tension between opportunities and realities. In Fossheim, H. & Ingierd, H. (Eds.) (2015). Internet Research Ethics, pp.122-140. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Sylvia IV, J. J. (2016). Little brother: how big data necessitates an ethical shift from privacy to power. In Davisson, A. L. & Booth, P. (Eds.) (2016). Controversies in digital ethics, pp.13- 28. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Taylor, L. (2016). The ethics of big data as a public good: which public? Whose good?

Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Mathematical, Physical and engineering sciences, 374(2083). Accessed: 26-09-2018.

Trottier, D. (2014) Big data ambivalence: visions and risks in practice. In Hillyard, S. &

Hand, M. (Eds.) (2014). Big data?: qualitative approaches to digital research, pp.51-74.

Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Vayena, E., Haeusermann, T., Adjekum, A. & Blasimme, A. (2018). Digital health:

meeting the ethical and policy challenges. Swiss Medical Weekly, 148(34), EMH Swiss Medical Publishers, Ltd. Accessed: 04-09-2019.

Wang, Y. (2016). Big opportunities and big concerns of big data in education. TechTrends:

Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 60(4), pp.381-384.

Weller, K. (2015). Accepting the challenges of social media research. Online Information Review, 39(3), pp.281-289.

Zimmer M. (2016). OkCupid Study Reveals the Perils of Big-Data Science. Wired.

Accessed: 14-06-2018.

Zimmer, M. (2018). Addressing conceptual gaps in big data research ethics: an application of contextual integrity. In Markham, A. N., Herman, A. & Tiidenberg, K. (Eds.) (2018). Ethics as method. Accessed: 01-10-2018.

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Zimmer, M. & Proferes, N. J. (2014). A topology of Twitter research: disciplines, methods, and ethics. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66 (3), pp.250-261.

Zook, M., S. Barocas, D., Boyd, K. Crawford, E. Keller, S. P. Gangadharan, A. Goodman, et al.

(2017). Ten simple rules for responsible big data research. PLoS Computational Biology 13 (3). Accessed: 28-09-2018.

Zwitter, A. (2014). Big Data ethics. Big Data & Society, 1(2). Accessed: 26-09-2018.

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

CASE

STUDIES

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Ethical challenges in digital research 2nd edition

3. Case studies

This category contains research with focus on specific topics, such as countries and their developments (Fayoyin, 2017; Assay, 2017), Foucault’s “Governmentality” (Elichirigoity, 2019), sexual cultures (Allen, 2009), fandom (Bennett, et al., 2016), piracy (Carey, 2012), branding feminism (Bandonis & Booth, 2016), youth suicide (Eskisabel-Azpiazu, et. al.

2017) and much more. Dive into the literature in this category to learn more about previous case studies on digital research.

Aarsand, P. & Forsberg, L. (2010). Producing children's corporeal privacy: ethnographic video recording as material-discursive practice. Qualitative research, 10(2), pp.249-268.

Abasi, A. R. & Taylor, M. C. (2007). Tackling the issues and challenges of using video data in adult literacy research. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 47(2), pp.289-307.

Akpojivi, U. (2017). Rethinking information privacy in a “connected” world. In Mhiripiri, N.

A. & Chari, T. (2017). Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age, pp.268-285.

Information Science Reference (ISR).

Alcántara, H. (2019). Collective construction of identity in the internet: ethical dimension and intercultural perspective. In Frühbauer, J. J., Hausmanninger, T. & Capurro, R. (Eds.).

(2019). Localizing the Internet – ethical aspects in intercultural perspective, pp.229–241.

Leiden: The Netherlands: Wilhelm Fink Verlag. Accessed: 29-10-2019.

Allen, L. (2009). "Snapped": Researching the sexual cultures of schools using visual methods. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), 22(5), pp.549- 561.

Amazeen, M. A. & O’Sullivan-Gavin, S. (2016). “Rogue” advertising in the digital age:

creative reputation building or industry irresponsibility? In Davisson, A. L. & Booth, P. (Eds.) (2016). Controversies in digital ethics, pp.123-137. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Assay, B. E. (2017). Intellectual property rights and the protection of Africa’s traditional knowledge. In Mhiripiri, N. A. & Chari, T. (2017). Media Law, Ethics, and Policy in the Digital Age, pp.25-43. Information Science Reference (ISR).

Bakare, A. A. (2018). Digital Libraries and Copyright of Intellectual Property. Advances in Library and Information Science (pp.377-395), IGI Global. Accessed: 05-09-2019.

Balmer, C., Griffiths, F. & Dunn, J. (2015). A review of the issues and challenges involved in using participant-produced photographs in nursing research. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(7), pp.1726-1737.

Bandonis, M. & Booth, P. (Eds.) (2016). Branding feminism: corporate blogging and the shaky relationship between ideology and profitability. In Davisson, A. L. & Booth, P. (Eds.) (2016). Controversies in digital ethics, pp.279-294. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

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Banks, W. & Eble, M. (2007). Digital spaces, online environments, and human participant research: interfacing with institutional review boards. In McKee, H. A. & DeVoss, D. N.

(Eds.) (2007). Digital Writing research: technologies, methodologies and ethical issues, pp.27-47. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press.

Barker, J. & Weller, S. (2003). “Is it fun?” Developing children centered research methods.

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 23(1/2), pp.33–58.

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