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Architecture, Design and Conservation

Danish Portal for Artistic and Scientific Research

Aarhus School of Architecture // Design School Kolding // Royal Danish Academy

CITAstudio: Computation in Architecture 2015 Nicholas, Paul; Ayres, Phil

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Nicholas, P., & Ayres, P. (2016). CITAstudio: Computation in Architecture 2015. The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation.

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Download date: 30. Jul. 2022



CITAstudio: Computation in Architecture / 20 15


The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation Institute of Architecture and Technology


CITAstudio / Page 2 – 3



Introductions page 4

/ Acknowledgements page 10 / Aggregations page 14

/ disContinuities page 38 / Interrogations page 60

/ Dissipative Architectures page 84 / Reciprocities page 102

/ scalarHierachies page 122 / Temporalities page 138

/ Credits 168







A Changing Practice…

Over the last 30 years the introduction of digital design tools has exerted a profound impact on architectural design practice, fundamentally changing the ways in which the built environment is designed, communicated and realised. Today, architecture is almost entirely produced using digital tools. The development of programmed information models has created a new generation of dynamic representations in which complex environmental and material simulations, structural analyses and fabrication data can be directly interfaced with the

architectural design space. In these models the act of drawing has become entangled with the ability to calculate. Creating a new site between tool and representation, architects are given a new opportunity to design for, and with, a higher degree of complexity. By devising new environmental, material and structural solutions we can radically challenge the way we design our built surroundings.

It is this context and potential which

‘CITA Studio: Computation in Architecture’

investigates. Our ambition is to understand Information Technology as a fundamental shift in architecture’s representational and conceptual traditions. In architecture our representations; drawings and models are not only systems of notation but also speculative sites of design investigation and discovery. As our representations develop, the possibility for architectural expression changes - not only with respect to its formal or structural thinking but also with respect to its spatial, social and experiential potential.

CITAstudio: Computation in Architecture

CITAstudio provides a Masters level architectural design programme that places special focus on examining architectural issues

through critically situating computation and digital technologies in the processes of thinking, forming and producing architecture. The programme fosters a dynamic, creative, experimental and rich intellectual environment supported through direct contact with the research centre CITA (Centre for Information Technology and Architecture).

The CITAstudio programme equips students with core knowledge and understandings for addressing site, complex building programme and related architectural issues through computational design methods.

Our goal is to provide a creative framework for the active and critical thinking of the spatial, theoretical and technological consequences of digital design practice. We encourage students towards their own critical reflections on how these tools are used, how they are developed and how they interface with the knowledge fields of other disciplines.


Relation to Research

The changes to the profession and practice outlined above are also eroding many of the traditional boundaries of the profession, altering its scope, values and mixing disciplinary demarcations – all of which drives a need for the conceptualisation and invention of alternatives to traditional practice.

A principle location for such alternatives to be investigated is within research.

CITA is a research body with an international presence that is investigating the implications and potentials of digital technologies in Architecture. Over the last ten years it has established itself as a leading international research environment, disseminating its work through numerous exhibitions, publications, conference presentations and scholarly papers.

The study programme continuously develops insight into key concepts of research, providing students with the conceptual tools

to understand and develop their own research practice. Students are placed into direct contact with the expertise of CITA’s research environment and extensive international network of collaborators and industrial partners. The teaching focus is tightly linked to CITA’s core research practice, which is established upon the internationally recognised Research-by-Design methodology. Through ongoing interaction with and tracking of CITA research projects, students are introduced to core aspects of this methodology, through which they develop the critical capacities, advanced skills and new creative frameworks relevant to a contemporary practice that is in a state of continual


In 2015, CITAstudio has extended its engagement with research practice by further developing three themes: collaborations with academic research groups (both internal and external), collaborations with research groups embedded within architectural practices,

and the making of research with practice and industrial partners. CITAstudio students have attended the Design Modeling Symposium 2015, drawing insight, inspiration and networks from state of the art academic and practice- based modeling and simulation approaches.

CITAstudio has hosted workshops with external research groups including Bau Kunst Erfinden (Universität Kassel) examining force based strategies for material organisation within thin concrete shells, as well as with Philip Beesley and Living Systems Architecture Group (University of Waterloo) implementing emerging technologies for responsive architectures. Through the Velux Guest Professorship programme, Billie Faircloth -leader of the transdisciplinary research group at Kieran Timberlake Architects – is currently leading a series of workshops into the multiscale design and registration of thermodynamic systems. The semester culminates in a permanent built work, a research pavilion undertaken with Søren Jenson engineers and EHLERT GmbH steel fabricators.


Structure and Content of the Course

The CITAstudio masters programme is organised across 2 years (4 semesters), and is based around project-based experimentation and inquiry in order to stimulate and sharpen creative and critical abilities. Year 1 and 2 run in parallel to encourage mutual exchange and peer support through the experiences, knowledge and skills developed by each student. The 2014-15 Autumn semester thematic is Material Energies. The studio has explored and developed expanded models for thinking about associations between material and energy within architecture. This book documents some of those explorations. At present, energies such as thermal variation, air velocity, and magnetic fields remain a largely untapped source of innovation and inspiration for architects. We have sought to go beyond standardisations, and to use material energies as a formative and transformative process

throughout design, and across scales. By interrogating the notion of material energies at different scales, through design, simulation and empirical testing, projects have developed specific contexts, refined understandings and explore architectural implications.

In the Spring semester students are given the freedom to unpack and explore their programme of study through a personally directed project. While these explorations take point of departure in, and motivation from, the year’s thematic and the skills, tools and personal interests developed in the previous semester(s), the opportunity is to focus more fully on identifying and pursuing personal agendas and methods of study within the field.


The CITAstudio programme provides students with resources that complement the concerns of the programme. Courses such as

Design-led Coding, which run over the two years, introduce a fundamental basis of programming theory, concepts and techniques in both abstract and applied contexts. Students move through basic to advanced knowledge of python coding and parametric modeling, developing skills in problem decomposition, awareness of suitable computational models, and investigate the productive application of programming to aspects of speculation, making, representational practice and design. Operational knowledge of digital fabrication machinery is provided continuously, as these techniques offer a key means to readdress the way we understand, use and make systems and materials. CITAstudio’s fabrication resources include a robot laboratory, as well as 3D printing, laser cutting and milling facilities.


Internal academic research


Internal dissemination CITA

built prototypes portfolio public exhibitions permanent built work

book publication paper and journal articles


heterogenous printed materials


thermodynamic design of materials, surfaces & spaces workshop & seminar:

machine learning workshop:

dissapative architectures workshops:

DMS 2015 workshop:

magnetic structuring of thin shells guest professorship:

multiscale thermodynamic systems project:

built demonstrator Bau Kunst Erfinden Billie Faircloth - Keiran Timberlake Architects Søren Jensen Engineers

Living Systems Architecture Group Philip Beesley EHLERT GmbH steel fabricators

Emanuele Naboni

crit presentations Daniel Lee

tracking CITA research projects

Design Modeling Symposium (DMS 2015)

External academic research External practice-based research

External dissemination

External practice


CITAstudio / Page 12 – 13



Sofia Adolfsson, Jon Andersen, Miguel Ruiz-Rivas Avendaño, Phil Ayres, Lina Baciuskaite, Tore Banke, Philip Beesley, Giselle Bouron, Corneel Cannearts, Joao Paulo Carrascoza, Terry Chun Yin Chan, Brian Cheung, Alice Choupeaux, Lisbet Fritze Christensen, Jens Jacob Jul Christensen, Anders Holden Deleuran, Oskar Edström, Bau Kunst Erfinden, Jonas Ersson, Marie Houmann Erstad, Henrik Leander Evers, Billie Faircloth, Sebastian Gatz, Christoph Gengnagel, Hollie Gibbons, Ana Goidea, Anders P Hansson, Magdalena Haslinger, Ivan Heitmann, Vibber Hermansen, Che Ying Huen, Isabel Huszar, Zeliha Asya Ilgün, Anders Ingvartsen, Mads Johnsen, Hulda Jonsdottir, Ricardo Landulpho Justi, Jens Ulrik Jørgensen, Dongil Kim, Tadeas Klaban, Inès Klausberger, Thorsten Klooster, Rafael Kölmel, Olga Krukovskaya, Katre Laura, Scott Leinweber, Mathias Lindskog, Chen-Chi Lo, Daniel Sang-Hoon Lee, Henrik Litske, Timothy Lyons, Janusz Maczewski, Henrik Malm, Francesco Matteo Marchese, Lars Tingskov Mikkelsen, Jonas Weis Mortensen, Nicholas Mostovac, Emanuele Naboni, Darius Narmontas, Julien Nembrini, Paul Nicholas, Jesper Nislev, Johan Lund Pedersen, Gina Perier, Teodor Petrov, Lyn Seung Poon, John Reynders, Annika Nora Richmond, Jacob Riiber, SCANLAB, Claudia Schmidt, Mandeep Singh, Julie Cathrine Sonne, David Stasiuk, Martin Tamke, Ida Friis Thinning, Anders Boel Tversted, Jesper Wallgren, Yasemin Yilmaz Yilmaz, Kristjana Ósk Sigurdardottir, Eduardo De Francisco Del Saz, SuperformLab, Cecilie Schjetlein Sundt, Mette Ramsgaard

Thomsen, Torben Valerius, Adam Vukmanov, Thyge Dahlgaard Wahrens, Ryan Welch, Mark West, Lukasz Wlodarczyk, Karoline Wæringsaasen, Wenyu Wu, Zeynab Zaghi, Mateusz Zwierzycki


Workshop leader Guest professor Teaching team


CITAstudio / Page 14 – 15

Resources demonstrate fundamental concepts that are introduced via coursework for the purpose of possible translation into experiments

How to read this publication


Experiments draw upon resources. Experiments are design

explorations, here collected into seven thematics, that are conducted either as group or individual work. Experiments include prototypes, speculative representations, simulations and built demonstrators


CITAstudio / Page 16 – 17






CITAstudio / Page 18 – 19

Resources Experiments

Aggregations are exploratory modular systems made from discrete elements. Digital techniques offer a means to extend the way we understand, design, use and make these systems.

The introduction of precision and controlled variability through digital design and fabrication challenges any assumption of an average or repeated condition by supporting the modulation of components within an aggregation to steer local and global behaviours.

The complexities arising from module variation and assembly methods are explored in both rigid and indeterminate, non-stationary systems. This introduces a parallel concern of structural properties and performance, which are investigated alongside spatial and architectural interests.

Aggregation strategies can be aligned to a variety of digital design methods. For example, parametric and scripted tools allow the exploration of nested and recursive structures;

rigid-body simulation permits the study of indeterminate assemblies that are ‘poured’ and settle by gravity; physical structures explore questions of tectonic and junction and lead to an appreciation of the architectural qualities that can arise from aggregated systems.

Design Led Coding: growth algorithms.

Olga Krukovskaya


Adaptive Aggregations: prototyping inflatable aggregating elements.


CITAstudio / Page 20 – 21

Robot command and control using HAL

Incremental robotic forming of clay Opposite page


CITAstudio / Page 22 – 23

Design Led Coding: fractals.

Jesper Nislev


Simulating Rigid Body Aggregations.

Workshop with Corneel Cannearts.


CITAstudio / Page 24 – 25

Design Led Coding: Cellular Automata.

Jesper Nislev


Aggregating multi-scale com- ponents using nested packing geometries. Lisbet Fritze Christensen, Mattias Lindskog, Henrik Malm, Anders Tversted, Yasemin Yilmaz


CITAstudio / Page 26 – 27

Design Led Coding: Cellular Automata.

Jesper Nislev


Testing the implications of module variation on the flexibility of an aggregate.

Lisbet Fritze Christensen, Mattias Lindskog, Henrik Malm, Anders Tversted, Yasemin Yilmaz


CITAstudio / Page 28 – 29

Design Led Coding: Cellular Automata.

Jesper Nislev


Time-based aggregations testing interaction with underlying objects.


CITAstudio / Page 30 – 31

Workshop: Corrugated light- weight structural skins.


Aggregating patterns of rigid bodies


CITAstudio / Page 32 – 33

Design Led Coding: physics-based simulation.

Jesper Nislev


Pre-calibrated illumination effects are achieved through the designed distribution of transparent surfaces.

Lisbet Fritze Christensen, Mattias Lindskog, Henrik Malm, Anders Tversted, Yasemin Yilmaz


CITAstudio / Page 34 – 35

Design Led Coding: Fractals.

Jesper Nislev

Modular graded spatial structure.

Sebastian Gatz


Exhibition: Adaptive Aggregations.

A restless shelter for Råbjerg Mile.


CITAstudio / Page 36 – 37

Design Led Coding: populations.

Inès Klausberger

Image credit: Anders Ingvartsen


Image credit: Anders Ingvartsen


CITAstudio / Page 38 – 39

Design Led Coding: Force-based simulation.

Jesper Nislev


The point cloud as site for ongoing design speculation. Adaptive Aggregations workshop with ScanLab.


CITAstudio / Page 40 – 41






CITAstudio / Page 42 – 43

CITA Robot Lab

Resources Experiments

disContinuities describe experiments that seek out opportunities for steering towards specificity and heterogeneity by means of design interventions that operate across scales and system boundaries.

Directed towards both material and immaterial systems, these experiments are critically aware that geometry is often not representative of the boundaries under consideration, nor is geometry able to capture the dynamics of temporally sensitive conditions. This demands appropriate methods of registration, representation and interpretation as a precursor to developing attitudes towards intervention and steering.

Methods of registration supporting these interests include thermal and electrical sensing of designed graded materials, data gathering from sensing arrays at urban scale and physical simulation of dynamic systems. These registrations feed into experiments aimed towards making other kinds of boundary observable, malleable and controllable.

These experiments cultivate territories beyond notions of efficiency and optimisation and include the use of magnetic fields to spatially distribute material constituents and open up possibilities for anisotropy, functionalisation and tailored thermal and electrical conductivity.

Through the highly specified control of toolpaths, further experiments steer continuous material depositions as a means to create graded structures that aim towards modulation and participation within dynamic environments.


Tracking graded thermal conductivity over time. Jens jacob jul christensen, Darius Narmontas, Lina Baciuskaite, Teodor Petrov

Steered conductivity within thin concrete shells. Workshop with Bau Kunst Erfinden. Ana Goidea, Alice Choupeaux, Johan Lund Pedersen


CITAstudio / Page 44 – 45

Design Led Coding: surface-adaptive instantiation.

Lyn Poon


Conductive iron rich concretes.

Workshop with Bau Kunst Erfinden.

Ana Goidea, Alice Choupeaux, Johan Lund Pedersen


CITAstudio / Page 46 – 47

Design Led Coding: information-based surface mappings.

Lyn Poon

Robotically moulded concrete. Us- ing sandcasting as a remouldable material. Rafael Kölmel Opposite page


CITAstudio / Page 48 – 49

Flexible full scale mould for a thin-shelled vault.

Workshop with Mark West

Robotically moulded concrete. Rafael Kölmel


CITAstudio / Page 50 – 51

Fieldtrip: Junkers Factory, Dessau

Identifying and registering microclimates.

Workshop with Billie Faircloth.

2.0 m 0.0 m +_

0.3 m 0.6 m






E1 D2


C2 C1 B3

B2 B1 B3

B2 B1


- 0.05 m

1.6 m

1.9 m

1.9 m

D1 Ivy

Stone tiles




10/04/2015 21:00 10/05/2015 01:00 10/05/2015 05:00 10/05/2015 09:00 10/05/2015 13:00 10/05/2015 17:00

8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 21.5 22.5 23.5 24.5


Projecting landscape at Råbjerg Mile.

Ida Friis Thinning

10 years

20 years

150 meters

300 meters

0 5years

Fast moving sand Slow moving sand

0 15m 75m

5 years

1 years

30 years


CITAstudio / Page 52 – 53

Design Led Coding: anamorphic projection.

Giselle Bouron

Fieldtrip: Junkers Factory, Dessau

Physical simulations register the interaction of a moving architec- ture upon a moving landscape.

Ida Friis Thinning Opposite page



along edge SHELTERED

by the curve




CITAstudio / Page 54 – 55

Geometry/flow interactions: simulation studies.

Lina Baciuskaite, Ana Goidea, Magdalena Haslinger, Nicholas Mostovac

Materially graded sail.

Ida Friis Thinning

Marking the landscape: traces of a moving architecture.

Ida Friis Thinning Opposite page


CITAstudio / Page 56 – 57

Performance-based evolutionary design strategies.

Ida Friis Thinning


Synthetic 3D printed weaves:

gravitational and toolpathing studies.

Zeliha Asya Ilgün


CITAstudio / Page 58 – 59

Design Led Coding: conic orientations.

Terry Chun Yin Chan


Synthetic 3D printed weaves: variation of fabrication parameters as a means for differentiation.

Zeliha Asya Ilgün


CITAstudio / Page 60 – 61


Spatial studies of locally differentiated disruptive elements for a unified space-frame field.

Jonas Ersson


CITAstudio / Page 62 – 63






CITAstudio / Page 64 – 65

Performance-based evolutionary design strategies.

Ida Friis Thinning

Floating Space: exploratory surface studies in etched brass.

Jonas Ersson Opposite page

Resources Experiments

Interrogations explore physical and data- based operations that produce experimental transforms, reconstructions and manipulations, in ways that introduce new spatial and dynamic narratives.

Digital modelling tools can be used to extract and encode measured material behaviour, allowing deformation to be studied, varied and specified as part of the design process.

State of the art 3D laser scanning and data processing offers the ability to capture large scale environments with millimetre accuracy. The ability to search these digital resources opens up new possibilities for combinatoric operations, more informed resource use, and the specification of material, light and acoustic performance.


CITAstudio / Page 66 – 67

Simulation of fabric behaviours and mesh parameterisation.

Olga Krukovskaya


Subtractive grading of timber to control bending in and out of plane.

Miguel Ruiz-Rivas Avendaño


CITAstudio / Page 68 – 69

Simulation of fabric behaviours and mesh parameterisation.

Olga Krukovskaya

Graded flexibility in timber: registering bending radius and behaviour.

Miguel Ruiz-Rivas Avendaño


CITAstudio / Page 70 – 71

Simulation of fabric behaviours and mesh parameterisation.

Olga Krukovskaya


LIDAR scanning as a basis for long-term resource maintenance and design resource.

Anders Per-Kristian Hansson


CITAstudio / Page 72 – 73

Fieldtrip: Ferropolis.

Automated shape recognition of resources from 3D point cloud.

Anders Per-Kristian Hansson.

Opposite page


CITAstudio / Page 74 – 75

Design Led Coding: Recursion.

Wenyu Wu

Identification of desired timber vectors and geometries from 3D point cloud. Anders Per-Kristian Hansson.


CITAstudio / Page 76 – 77

CNC hot wire cutting: studies in channeling light. Mathias Lindskog Calibrating robotic programming for

the manipulation of soft materials


CITAstudio / Page 78 – 79

Design Led Coding: surface populations.

Inès Klausberger


Light channeling column: details and fabrication logic for extending beyond the rule surface method.

Mathias Lindskog





CITAstudio / Page 80 – 81

Design Led Coding: surface populations.

Inès Klausberger

Themal [Mass] Customisation: designing the thermal characteristics of an urban public space. Site plan, showing thermal gradients.

Lyn Poon


Digital draping: form-finding vaulted structures.

Mathias Lindskog


CITAstudio / Page 82 – 83

Codiing logics for space-frames and panelisation.

Jonas Ersson


Free fabrication facility for Wolfsburg: plans and section.

Ana Goidea, Anders Per Kristian Hansson, Janusz Maczewski, Wenyu Wu


CITAstudio / Page 84 – 85


CITAstudio / Page 86 – 87








CITAstudio / Page 88 – 89

Resources Experiments

Led by Philip Beesley, this research workshop implements emerging technologies for responsive architecture. Capable of sensing, actuation and learning, emerging technologies make it possible to rethink architecture not as something static, but rather as entities and environments able to respond and adapt to changing conditions, and capable of mutual exchange with their occupants. This shift poses new considerations and opportunities for architectural design - how can these ‘living’

systems function, and how can they be designed and adapted within architecture?

The research workshop develops an installation that includes LED lighting, infra-red sensors, acoustic and physical actuators and shape-memory alloys. It pursues three lines of exploration: the aggregation and distribution of kinetic mechanisms and assemblies into interactive networks; the clarification of new possibilities for acoustic response, which emerge from a temporal sampling of the environment;

and the use of machine learning algorithms – specifically Curiosity Based Learning Algorithms – to allow for constantly evolving responses to occupants exploring the environment.


CITAstudio / Page 90 – 91

Kinetic frond with LED, elevation


CITAstudio / Page 92 – 93

Design Led Coding: cellular automata.

Anders Per-Kristian Hansson


Kinetic frond, axonometric


CITAstudio / Page 94 – 95

Design Led Coding: branching.

Anders Per-Kristian Hansson

Nesting for CNC fabrication


CITAstudio / Page 96 – 97


Installation configuration and rigging


CITAstudio / Page 98 – 99

Progression of a machine learning algorithm.

Workshop with Mateusz Zwierzycki.

Ana Goidea

Image credit: Anders Ingvartsen


CITAstudio / Page 100 – 101

Progression of a machine learning algorithm.

Workshop with Mateusz Zwierzycki.

Ana Goidea

Image credit: Anders Ingvartsen


Image credit: Anders Ingvartsen


CITAstudio / Page 102 – 103

Progression of a machine learning algorithm.

Workshop with Mateusz Zwierzycki.

Ana Goidea


Image credits: Anders Ingvartsen


CITAstudio / Page 104 – 105






CITAstudio / Page 106 – 107

Lyn Poon \ stud5636 semester 3 PortfoLio 2014 \ CitAstudio

IP2 \ ROBOT AND TOOL \ MAKING AN ARTEFACT \ \ CLAY ROCK.IT GrouP \ GiseLLe Bouron \ JoAo PAuLo CArrAsCozA \ Wenyu Wu


\test 02 Pressure: 1 BAr

no PLAstiCBAGContAininGtheCLAy


6mm holes attachment to robot

DIM steel cylinder

Converter for air compressor attachment

Screw to guide pusher to and act as stopper

Changeable profile designs

6MM bolts to attach profile Nuts welded onto ‘L’ brackets

for securing changeable profiles


Container Barrel



210MM 160MM


Resources Experiments

Reciprocities explore how productive interdependencies between material, fabrication process and environment can be sites for design.

These experiments develop strategies that distribute the location of design parameters and behavioural intelligence across these boundaries.

They investigate how the precision of robotics can provide new means to engage with imprecise materials, and how control mechanisms for form or movement might be placed into either environments or material ecosystems.

Robotic programming and simulation using HAL


Robotic clay extrusion: mapping results from variable nozzel configurations.

Lyn Poon, Zeliha Asya Ilgün


CITAstudio / Page 108 – 109

Digital fabrication direct from physics-based form-finding.


Simulating resistance and behaviour of clay under force.

Chen-Chi Lo, Eduardo De Francisco Del Saz, John Reynders, Miguel Ruiz-Rivas Avendaño.


CITAstudio / Page 110 – 111


Simulating resistance and behaviour of clay under force.

Chen-Chi Lo, Eduardo De Francisco Del Saz, John Reynders, Miguel Ruiz-Rivas Avendaño


CITAstudio / Page 112 – 113

Drone-based 3D scanning and point cloud registration

Displaced environmental intelligence for real-time control:

Jonas Ersson


Adaptable responsive component:

study of membrane restrained, bending active deflection under loading.

Ida Friis Thinning, Inès Klausberger, Tadeas Klaban


CITAstudio / Page 114 – 115

Flexible digital moulds for complex, thin-shelled vaults.

Workshop with Mark West


Adaptable responsive component:

Built prototypes.

Ida Friis Thinning, Inès Klausberger, Tadeas Klaban.


CITAstudio / Page 116 – 117

Design Led Coding: 3D cellular automata.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


Reciprocal behaviours:

form-finding of tensile and space-frame hybrids.

Jonas Ersson


CITAstudio / Page 118 – 119

Refractive geometries:

lens studies.

Jonas Ersson Opposite page Recursion mapped onto a complex surface.

Jonas Ersson


CITAstudio / Page 120 – 121

Soft Envelope: animating supple architectural surfaces.

Olga Krukovskaya Opposite page Adaptable responsive component:

simulation of actuation.

Ida Friis Thinning, Inès Klausberger, Tadeas Klaban


CITAstudio / Page 122 – 123

Steering thermal microclimates:

simulation studies.

Lina Baciuskaite, Ana Goidea, Magdalena Haslinger, Nicholas Mostovac.

Soft Envelope: animating supple architectural surfaces for a site on the west coast of Jylland.

Olga Krukovskaya


CITAstudio / Page 124 – 125






CITAstudio / Page 126 – 127

Resources Experiments

scalarHierachies collects digital and physical experimental approaches to the programming of a substrate so as to activate desired behaviours at larger scales of material, element or building.

Digital tools provide new opportunities to explore specification at a small scale and to extrapolate specific ranges of behaviour at a larger scale. Materials with programmed porosity, found through the use of simulation and search algorithms, can be designed to exhibit desired deformations or resistances under loading.

Localised control of positioning can be linked to global refractive effects, while the designed aggregation of units determines degrees of freedom for physical and digital form finding processes.


Robotic Clay: recursive, nested impressions.

Magdalena Haslinger, Rafael Kölmel, Miguel Ruiz-Rivas, Wenyu Wu


CITAstudio / Page 128 – 129

Cellular Automata as means for material grading.

Jens Jacob Jul Christensen Opposite page Flexible moulds for thin-shelled vaults

and complex wall geometries in masonry.

Workshop with Mark West

Unit topologies and physical behaviours.


CITAstudio / Page 130 – 131

Refraction studies.

Sofia C. Adolfsson, Oskar A.S.

Edström, Margarita Isabel Huszár, Jonas Ersson, Jesper Wallgren, Ida Friis Tinning Opposite page Design Led Coding: branching algorithms.

Eduardo de Francisco del Saz


CITAstudio / Page 132 – 133

Physics-based form-finding for materially graded vaulting structures.

Jens Jacob Jul Christensen Design Led Coding: branching algorithms.

Eduardo de Francisco del Saz


Structurally informed material design through evolutionary optimisation


CITAstudio / Page 134 – 135

Design Led Coding: branching algorithms.

Eduardo de Francisco del Saz


Nesting studies: synclastic and anticlastic forming.

Sofia C. Adolfsson, Oskar A.S.

Edström, Margarita Isabel Huszár, Jonas Ersson, Jesper Wallgren, Ida Friis Tinning Opposite page


CITAstudio / Page 136 – 137

Cascading Luminescence: tensile formfinding of pathways.

Sofia C. Adolfsson, Oskar A.S. Edström, Margarita Isabel Huszár, Jonas Ersson, Jesper Wallgren, Ida Friis Tinning Design Led Coding: surface populations.

Magdalena Haslinger


CITAstudio / Page 138 – 139

Design Led Coding: surface populations.

Magdalena Haslinger

Image credits: Anders Ingvartsen


Cascading Luminescence:


Sofia C. Adolfsson, Oskar A.S.

Edström, Margarita Isabel Huszár, Jonas Ersson, Jesper Wallgren, Ida Friis Tinning

Image credits: Anders Ingvartsen


CITAstudio / Page 140 – 141






CITAstudio / Page 142 – 143

Resources Experiments

Investigating the possibilities of an architecture that incorporates time as a

fundamental forming element, these experiments look to the productive engagement of

temporalities associated with material behaviour, thermal conductivity and biological growth processes.

Simulation provides a means for design to escape the static and engage with dynamic, temporal requirements. The experiments collected here speculate about seasonal accommodations designed through an intimate knowledge of bending behaviour, as well as structural skins programmed to optimally diffuse daylight for Nordic environments. Temporal simulation allows them to also probe the limits of what we make architecture with, by predicting the growth processes of urban façade farming, and the processes of thermal energy transfer by which multi-material structures can condition public spaces.

Design Led Coding:

adaptive surface instantiation


Multiscale mesh refinement.

Giselle Bouron

Tracking continuous change of natural aggregrates at multiple scales.


CITAstudio / Page 144 – 145

LIDAR registration and point cloud analysis tools


Form-finding of bending active structures using physics-based simulation.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


CITAstudio / Page 146 – 147

Simulating thermal conductivity through bi-material spatial units.

Lyn Poon Coding thermal conductivity tools


Primary paths Secondary paths Tertiary paths

Internal heat source External heat source

1.5 m 0.3 m

3 hours Dissipation/Absorption

- Lower surface area

3 hrs 2 hrs 1 hrs Dissipation/Absorption

- Greater surface area

Metal internal pipes

Concrete mass Epidermis


CITAstudio / Page 148 – 149

Coding thermal conductivity tools


Prototyping convective surfaces:

studies in surface modulation.

Lyn Poon


CITAstudio / Page 150 – 151

Cloth simulation: predicting pressed surfaces

Prototyping fabrication: complex porous geometry to be filled through additive metal casting.

Lyn Poon


CITAstudio / Page 152 – 153

Cloth simulation: predicting pressed surfaces

Adaptive systems for temporary inhabitation.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


CITAstudio / Page 154 – 155

Adaption based on local climatic and topographic specificities.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


Adaptable public inflatable structure responding to solar conditions.

Eduardo De Francisco Del Saz


CITAstudio / Page 156 – 157

Design Led Coding: anamorphic projection.

Tadeas Klaban


100% 100%




45% 22%


Raytracing studies of spacer geometries to specify the transmission of diffuse light through a stuctural shell.

Hulda Jonsdottir


CITAstudio / Page 158 – 159

Design Led Coding: surface-based mapping.

Lyn Poon


Simulation of tensile fabric behaviour using dynamic relaxation.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


CITAstudio / Page 160 – 161


Testing the implications of variable seed distribution and growth direction.

Magdalena Haslinger


CITAstudio / Page 162 – 163

Generative thermal manipulation using Cellular Automata.

Johan Lund Pedersen, Jonas Weis Mortensen

Inflation as means to adaptively regulate interior an microclimate.

Lukasz Wlodarczyk


CITAstudio / Page 164 – 165

Workshop: Arduino and electronics


Abstracted growth logics are the basis for a generative design process.

Magdalena Haslinger Opposite page

Growing guided and dynamic green boundaries. Magdalena Haslinger


CITAstudio / Page 166 – 167


CITAstudio / Page 168 – 168


Paul Nicholas Phil Ayres

Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen Martin Tamke


Paul Nicholas Phil Ayres Design

NR2154 Layout

Daniel Siim


Clausen Grafisk Copies

500 Paper

Munken Lynx 150g Gallerie Art Silk 300g Isbn



2016 Published by

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation Institute of Architecture and Technology IBT Philip de Langes Allé 10

DK-1435 Copenhagen K Denmark

+45 41701515




CITAstudio: Computation in Architecture is a two year

International Master’s Programme at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. With a focus on digital design and material fabrication the programme questions how computation is changing

our spatial, representational and material cultures. Through hands-on experimentation and production the programme emphasises learning- through-doing as a principle method for exploring computation as a means to pursue speculative design, experimental fabrication, material actuation and complex modelling.

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation Institute of Architecture and Technology

ISBN 978-87-7830-381-3 KADK

9788778303813> ISBN 978-87-7830-381-3



The EAAE Council invites the Heads and the Academic Programme Coordinators of all European Schools of Architecture to the Fifth Meeting of Heads of European Schools of

“Design in Urbanism”, a new EAAE network which he will be responsible for together with his colleague Pieter Jannink from the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture, and on page 13 new

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation School of Architecture.. Prototyping Architecture Exhibition 2012-13 [Nottingham

In a Danish context, the term landscape architecture encompasses cross- scale working areas from the design of small green areas to urban design and larger scale landscape

6.6 ‘THE INBETWEENESS WORKSHOP’ ANALYSIS & REFLECTIONS In the following section, four 1/20 scale models that were produced by students from the Spatial Design MA program at

Has the Moscow Architectural Institute (MARCHI) established any kind of educational cooperation with other schools of architecture in Europe and the U.S., and if so which ones..

This paper draws upon a series of workshops conducted at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design and The National Danish Film School, which were designed to collect

Associate Professor, Head of Urban Design Section, Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.. ”More than