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Technology Comprehension


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Danish University Colleges

Technology Comprehension and Makerspaces in the Danish School curriculum

Lembcke, Steen

Publication date:


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Citation for pulished version (APA):

Lembcke, S. (2020). Technology Comprehension and Makerspaces in the Danish School curriculum. Paper presented at Danmarks Læringsfestival 2020, København, Denmark.

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Download date: 17. Jul. 2022


Technology Comprehension

and Makerspaces in the Danish School curriculum

Steen Lembcke, VIA Learning and IT, VIA University College

Danish Learning Festival, Bella Center, 4th of March 2020


FabLab@SCHOOLdk project 2014-2018 FabLabs in Schools

4 communities and Aarhus university

Deployment in VIA Teacher Education of:


10 campusses


FabLab@SCHOOLdk communities

Silkeborg municipality Vejle municipality

Middelfart municipality Kolding municipality

VIA Makerspaces

1 Holstebro Campus 2 Silkeborg Campus 3 Horsens Campus 4 Viborg Campus 5 Aarhus Nord 6 Herning Campus 7 Randers Campus 8 Aarhus C Campus 9 Nørre Nissum 10 Skive


2 3

4 5




Teacher training af VIA Educators in Silkeborg FabLab

VIA Educators on study tours with FabLab@SCHOOLdk in Europe USA VIA Researchers on Fablearn Denmark and Fablearn EUROPE





FabLab systematic organization

from start

Central municipal FabLab Campus Bindslevs Plads Ans Skole


Sejs Skole

Vestre Skole Virklund Skole Ungdomsskolen Buskelundskolen Langsøskolen

Hvinningdalskolen Sølystskolen

Højmarksskolen Fårvang School VIA Teacher






LAB equipment 3D-printers Vinyl Cutters

Arduino controllers Microbit/Ultra:bit Lasercutter

VR-equipment Robots





Research and documentation: Hjorth, M., Iversen, O. S., Smith, R. C., Christensen, K. S., & Blikstein, P. (2015). Digital Technology and Design Processes: Report on a FabLab@School survey among Danish youth. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitet

Hjorth, M., Christensen, K. S., Iversen, O. S., Smith, R. C. (2017).



Teachers scaffolding

Subject goals

Digital goals

Social goals


Planning for a design



Design Brief: Design a School garden

Subject goals


Biology – Nature/Technology – Danish - Maths

Mesuring, design of the area earth quality – watering – bees – flora – outdoor classroom – aires for the small children –

greenhouse – cultivating – economy, budget, recycled material etc.


Aarhus universitet


Student-centered learning

• Laws and policy documents about primary and lower secondary school

• Teacher Education Centers

• Institutions and structures

• Design for schools

Design for Education

• Teacher’s planning and selection

• Teacher’s facilitation and scaffolding

• Teacher’s choice of learning ressources


design • Student learner activity

• Student planning and selection

• Student reflection

• Student building competencies

Learner’s design

J. Fibiger after inspiration from Salander og Kress: Læringsdesign (2012)


Designprocess: Lockers with Touch



remember, describe understand


use, chose

analyze, compare


evaluate, criticize, argue

Programming Arduino



Question  1:  i’ve  achieved  knowledge  about  the  Arduino  and  modules/sensors  and   programming  syntax.  


Question  2:  I  know  where  i  can  find  help  about  programming.  


Question  3:  I’m  able  to  recall  multiple  phases  within  the  design  process.  


Question  4:  I’m  able  to  form  an  issue  from  specific  goals.  


Question  5:  I’m  able  to  describe  the  phases  of  the  design  process.  


Question  6:  I’m  able  to  describe  my  surroundings  from  a  specific  goal.    


Question  7:  I’m  able  to  use  an  IDE  (Integrated  development  environment),  when  programming   an  Arduino  


Question  8:  I’m  able  to  use  the  design  process  for  product  development.  


Question  9:  I’m  able  to  illustrate  my  ideas  with  models  and  sketches.  


Question  10:  I’m  able  to  comprehend  my  surroundings  and  use  it  to  develop  products.  


Question  11:  I’m  able  to  lead  and  launch  activities  with  specific  goals.  




Question  1:  i’ve  achieved  knowledge  about  the  Arduino  and  modules/sensors  and   programming  syntax.  


Question  2:  I  know  where  i  can  find  help  about  programming.  


Question  3:  I’m  able  to  recall  multiple  phases  within  the  design  process.  


Question  4:  I’m  able  to  form  an  issue  from  specific  goals.  


Question  5:  I’m  able  to  describe  the  phases  of  the  design  process.  


Question  6:  I’m  able  to  describe  my  surroundings  from  a  specific  goal.    


Question  7:  I’m  able  to  use  an  IDE  (Integrated  development  environment),  when  programming   an  Arduino  


Question  8:  I’m  able  to  use  the  design  process  for  product  development.  


Question  9:  I’m  able  to  illustrate  my  ideas  with  models  and  sketches.  


Question  10:  I’m  able  to  comprehend  my  surroundings  and  use  it  to  develop  products.  


Question  11:  I’m  able  to  lead  and  launch  activities  with  specific  goals.  


Question  12:  I’m  able  to  observe  my  fellow  students  and  support  them.  


Question  13:  I’m  able  to  receive  constructive  criticism  regarding  my  work.  


Question  14:  I’m  able  to  find  different  solutions  on  a  specific  issue.  


Question  15:  I’m  able  to  take  my  ideas  from  theory  to  create  physical  product.  


Question  16:  I’m  able  to  listen  and  understand  criticism,  regarding  my  work,  and  use  it  in  a   positive  way.  


Question  17:  I’m  able  to  develop  a  product  which  can  resolve  a  specific  issue.    



Experiment period 2019 – 2021

Technology Comprehension in Danish schools on an national scale

Danish Ministry of Children and Education


Technology Comprehension in Danish schools

Experiment period 2019-2021

23 Schools

Technology as subject matter

23 Schools

Technology integrated in the subject

In service teacher training

TECH – modules Makerspace

in Teacher Education

(Danish, Maths, Arts, Nature/Technology,

Social Science, Science, Fysics)


Technology Comprehension competencies

Computational Empowerment

Technological Ability to act Digtal Skills

Computational Thinking Designprocesses and

Digital Design Literacy


Computational empowerment

”Computational Empowerment is the process in which children as

individuals and groups develop the skills, insights an flexivity needed to understand digital technology and its effect on their lives and society at large, and their capacity to engage critically, curiously and

constructively with the construction and deconstruction of technology.”

(Iversen, Smith and Dindler 2018)


Technology Comprehension in Makerspaces Teacher Education:

2. oktober 2020 19

National module 10 ECTS

Digital fabrication and designprocesses

Digital design for learning

TECH-module 10 ECTS

Three specialisations optional



Increasing water problems

– complexity, wickedness


02/10/2020 21


DR projekt Ultra:bit in higher Education

VIA software-engineer-students og teacher students collaborating about the construction of a programming module using micro:bit

Technology Comprehension


DR projekt Ultra:bit in higher Education

Module destinated for Teacher students focusing on Computational Thinking

Digital design literacy (designprocesses) Technological ability to act

Technology Comprehension


linje(r)/ord i overskriften ved at markere teksten fonten

for at hoppe mellem niveauer

2. oktober 2020 24

Technology Comprehension in VIA Makerspaces

Teacher students collaboration with in-service teachers

Teacher students planning TOOLCAMP with local companies Teacher students taking part in research interventions

Planning for schoolclass-workshops


02/10/2020 25

School classes work with challenges from local business


Teacher students collaborate with the companies in framing the challenges.

Teacher students take part in the

evauation/judging of

the products


02/10/2020 26




Programming Robots




Dash and Dot


Scenario-based education

Scenario-based education is entering a narrative where the students

together simulate a meaningful

practice towards a production goal

• History subject goals

• Robot programming goals

• Production goal. Learning is action based om knowledge

• Working with the world outside school

(Bundsgaard, Misfeldt &

Hetmar, 2012)


Mines under the sand


De-mining operation

Program your robot to:

Find the mine using a sensor

Examin and prepare for safe exploding

Make the robot give a clear and loud warning The robot withdraws from the mine


Signal: Mission completed

Go on searching for other mines…

Experiment with light colours, sensors, sound enregistered, moves and voice impulses!



Comprehension at VIA

• Makerspaces on all campusses


• We have a strong collaboration with practitioners in FabLab@SCHOOLdk, Danish municipalities and

international contacts


• Technology Comprehension has grown out of the research collaboration with AU AU (CCTD/DPU) + international universities (Columbia-, Stanford-, Bremen universities)

Research and



02/10/2020 32

VIA Learning and IT – research in the School practice


VIA Project: ”Language Teaching and Digital Technology ” 2020 - 2022

e.g. eTwinning and other

The Danish National Centre for Foreign Languages (NCFF)

02/10/2020 33


Scaffolding of learning in Library Makerspaces. (2019)

Einarsson, A.M. & Herzum, M. Proceedings of the FabLearn Europe 2019 Conference.


Formal activities

Non-formal activities Informal activities

in Makerspaces


Technology Comprehension


Perspectives for widening the scale

Educational training:

Teachers Educators

Student teachers

Building communites of practice (on a national and international scale) Municipalities and government participation and support

Further research

For example in the field of transfer from education in Technology Comprehension


A bit more about ”Computational Thinking”



A receipt

understandable for a computer

Route diagram flowchart

An example from Music

Britta Kornholt & Jesper Juellund Jensen 2019


Computational Thinking Jeannette M. Wing 2006

• Conceptualizing, not programming

• A way that humans, not computers, think

• Ideas, not artifacts

Jeannette Wing,

corporate vice president, Microsoft Research Britta Kornholt & Jesper Juellund Jensen 2019


Computational thinking

Computational thinking involves taking that complex problem and breaking it down into a

series of small, more manageable problems (decomposition). Each of these smaller problems can then be looked at individually, considering how similar problems have been

solved previously (pattern recognition) and focusing only on the important details, while ignoring irrelevant information (abstraction).

Next, simple steps or rules to solve each of the smaller problems can be designed


Finally, these simple steps or rules are used to program a computer to help solve the

complex problem in the best way.


Britta Kornholt & Jesper Juellund Jensen 2019


Computational Thinking

1. Logical reasoning 2. Algorithmic thinking 3. Decomposition

4. Abstraction

5. Pattern recognition 6. Evaluation

Malene Erkmann & Eva Petropouleas: Programmering i praksis (2017)



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