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Solar heating activities at the Technical University of Denmark Solar heating activities at the Technical University of Denmark

Simon Furbo

Department of Civil Engineering Technical University of Denmarky

Brovej, building 118 DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby

Denmark Denmark

E-mail: sf@byg.dtu.dk

(2)

Solar heating research at Technical University of Denmark

1974: Start

1975: Zero Energy House

1974-1995: Thermal Insulation Laboratory

1996-2000: Department of Buildings and Energy

2001-2010: Department of Civil Engineering

(3)

Solar energy group Solar energy group

Scientific staff, July 2010

Simon Furbo associate professor Ph D

•Simon Furbo, associate professor, Ph.D.

•Jianhua Fan, associate professor, Ph.D.

•Elsa Andersen, senior researcher, Ph.D.

•Bengt Perers, senior researcher, Ph.D. Bengt Perers, senior researcher, Ph.D.

•Ziqian Chen, researcher, Ph.D.

•Janne Dragsted Ph D student

•Janne Dragsted, Ph.D. student

(4)

Reseach areas Reseach areas

•Solar domestic hot water, SDHW systems

•Solar combi systems

•Solar heating plants

•Air collectors for dehumidification

(5)

Solar heating systems in Denmark

•Simple pay back time: 7-15 years

•Energy pay back time: 1-3 years

•Huge potential for technological improvements

•Need for education, research, development and

d t ti

demonstration

(6)

Solar heating research Solar heating research

Aim:

•To carry out research on a high international level

•To make the research results useable for the solar

heating branch

(7)

Solar heating research g

AIM:

I t f f / t ti

Improvement of performance/cost-ratio HOW:

Increased knowledge of thermal conditions and flow behaviour.

The knowledge is used for development and optimization RESEARCH:

Parallel theoretical and experimental activities

• numerical models, CFD calculations

• flow visualization, PIV measurements

• full scale experiments

• full scale experiments

(8)

Research financed by esea c a ced y

•Technical University of Denmark

•Danish Energy Authority

•The Danish Council for Strategic Research Mi i t f S i T h l d I ti

•Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation

•EU

•Greenland’s government

•Greenland s government

•Private foundations

•VILLUM FOUNDATION

•VILLUM FOUNDATION

•Private companies

(9)

Cooperation with: p

Universities/research institutes abroad

Producers and consultants in the solar heating branch

Other groups at the Technical University of Denmark

Danish research institutes, for instance TI

(10)

Ongoing research projects

• Ph.D. study: Solar heating in Greenland, Janne Dragsted

• Solar heating systems based on evacuated tubular solar collectors for Knud Rasmussen Højskolen, Sisimiut

• Energy savings for solar heating systems, phase 2

• Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system

• Research cooperation with SMV’s on solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system

• IEA Task 42 Compact thermal energy storage: Material development and system integration

• Videncenter for energibesparelser i bygninger: Solar heating systems for large buildings

• Tracking solar collector

• Strategic research cooperation with China on solar combi systems

• Strategic research cooperation with China on solar combi systems

• IEA Task 44 on solar heating/heat pump systems

• Solar collector with cover plate with different profiles

• Supervision of Swedish Ph.D. student

• Air solar collectors

(11)

Ph.D. study: Solar heating in Greenland Student: Janne Dragsted

Project period: 2007-2010 Project period: 2007 2010

Snow No snow

Sne

Jord Jord

Solar radiation and albedo

Solar azimuth-surface azimuth,°

Solar azimuth-surface azimuth,°

Evacuated tubular solar collectors and solar heating systems

(12)

Ongoing research project:

Energy savings for solar heating systems Energy savings for solar heating systems

Financed by: Danish Energy Authority

Participants: Department of Civil Engineering, Velux Danmark A/S/

SONNENKRAFT Scandinavia A/S Batec Solvarme A/S

Project period: January 2008 – December 2010

Aim: To determine energy savings for solar heating systems in one family houses

Activity:

Analyses of energy consumption before and after installation of solar heating s stems in one famil ho ses

heating systems in one family houses

(13)

Solar heating systems investigated in the project

• 11 systems from SONNENKRAFT Scandinavia A/S

• 13 systems from Velux A/S

• 5 systems from Batec A/S5 systems from Batec A/S

• 1 combined SONNENKRAFT Scandinavia/Velux system

• 10 SDHW systems and 20 solar combi systems

• Collector area: 2 2 m² 12 5 m² Average collector area: 5 4 m²

• Collector area: 2.2 m² - 12.5 m². Average collector area: 5.4 m²

• Store volume: 200 l - 800 l. Average store volume: 351 l

• Flat plate collectors and evacuated tubular solar collectors

(14)

IEA Task 42 Compact thermal energy storage: Material IEA Task 42 Compact thermal energy storage: Material development and system integration

Aim of work

• To develop a compact seasonal heat storage based on a salt hydrate with a stable supercooling

• The heat storage can be used as a part of a solar heating system which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of new buildings in Denmark

(15)

Phase Change Material with supercooling

Heat storage capacity of sodium acetate tri-hydrate

g p g

700 800

tre]

Sodium acetate

500 600

gy [kJ/lit

Supercooling

200 300 400

ed energ Water

Activation of lidifi ti

0 100 200

Store

Melting point = 58 °C

solidification

0

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(16)

Solar heating system based on evacuated tubular solar collectors for Knud Rasmussen Highschool in Sisimiut, Greenland

Installed 2008

(17)

Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system Project financed by Danish Agency for Science Technology and Innovation

Background 2008: 100

Project period: October 2008 - March 2012

3500 MW

20%

Denmark 2008: 100

2012: 140

2500 3000

15%

1500 2000

10%

1000 1500

5%

0 500

0%

(18)

The heat unit

• Heat is produced by the solar heating system and by the electric

h l h

heat elements or a heat pump

• The electric heat elements/heat pump should if possible only be in operation in periods where the contribution from solar heating ope at o pe ods e e t e co t but o o so a eat g can not cover the demand and where the electricity price is low

• The unit is equipped with a smart heat storage (variable auxiliary volume) and a smart control system which operates the unit

volume) and a smart control system which operates the unit based on prognoses for:

– heat demand

– solar heat production – electricity price

It i t d th t th it i t ff ti th t diti l

• It is expected that the unit is more cost-effective than traditional solar heating systems and an attractive alternative to individual oil- and natural gas boilers, both from an economic and

environmental point of view

(19)

Activities

The project includes five main activities

• Design of heat unit based on solar heating system, heat

storage and electric heating elements / heat pump DTU Byg, Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApSj a pS, O ate pS

• Development of detailed weather forecast model to predict solar radiation, temperatures and other important weather parameters DMI

parameters DMI

• On line forecasting of heat demand, solar heat production and electricity prices DTU Informatics, ENFOR A/S

• Development of control system that can communicate with DMI and operate the solar-electric heat unit in the best

possible way AllSun A/S possible way AllSun A/S

• Analysis of how the developed heat unit, if used in large

(20)

Solar collector loop & discharge loops

Fabric pipe

Fabric pipe

Cold and hot water

PEX pipe

Auxiliary heating principles

3 kW

3 kW Fabric pipe

PEX pipe PEX pipe

3 kW

Fabric pipe

3 kW

(21)

Strategic research cooperation with China on solar combi systems

•Development and demonstration of solar combi systems for Denmark and China

•Laboratory tests

•Demonstration in practice

(22)

IEA Task 44 on solar heating/heat pump systems

•Test of solar/heat pump system in laboratory test

•Test of solar/heat pump system in laboratory test facility

•Development and validation of simulation model

(23)

Solar collector with cover plate with different profiles Cooperation with Nordic Energy Group A/S

Cooperation with Nordic Energy Group A/S

• Development of new roof integrated solar collector with polymer cover plate

cover plate

(24)

Ph.D. studies finished 2007

•Elsa Andersen: Solar combi systems

•Alexander Thür: Compact Solar Combisystem. High Effi i b Mi i i i T t

Efficiency by Minimizing Temperatures

Ph.D. study finished 2010 y

•Eshagh Yazdashenas: Advanced solar combi systems

(25)

Test facilities Test facilities

•Indoor heat storage test facility

•Indoor heat storage test facility

•Indoor solar simulator

•Indoor clima simulator

•Indoor clima simulator

•Clima station

•Test facility for solar collectors

•Test facility for solar collectors

•Test facility for side-by-side test of evacuated tubular solar collectors

•Test facility for SDHW systems

•Test facility for solar combi systems y y

•PIV equipment

(26)

Solar collectors for solar heating plants

(27)

Antireflection treated glass

(28)

Evacuated tubular solar collectors

(29)

Air collector for dehumidification

Ventilator

Warm air into the house Ventilator

Black blanket Black blanket

Aluminium plate with

(30)

SDHW systems

(31)

Solar combi systems

Solar combi systems

(32)

Cold water inlet in hot water tanks

CFD calculations

(33)

Particle Image Velocimetry equipment

900 400 400

c ooling unit heating unit

buffer tank tank

(34)

Reports from:

Reports from:

• Thermal Insulation Laboratory

Department of Buildings and Energy

• Department of Buildings and Energy

• Department of Civil Engineering

www byg dtu dk

www.byg.dtu.dk

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