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Hypothesis  Development

Before   engaging   the   methodology   and   data,   the   following   hypotheses   have   been   developed   to   steer   the   investigation,   analyses   and   later   on   the   discussion.   It   is   the   intention   of   this   paper   to   use   the   MOAB   framework   to   shed   light   on   the   research   question   and   therefore   the   development   of   the   hypotheses   has   been   based   on   the   theoretical  framework  itself  and  literature  review  from  the  previous  section.    

The   MOAB   model   looks   at   the   motivation,   opportunity   and   ability   factors   that   are     enabling  or  disabling  for  sustainable  behavior  (Ölander  &  Thøgersen,  1995;  Thøgersen,   2010;  Thøgersen,  1994).  It  is  therefore  relevant  to  test  the  various  construct’s  individual   influence  on  behavior,  as  well  as  the  over  all  influence  of  the  combined  elements  of  the   model  on  behavior.  This  will  allow  the  testing  of  the  construct’s  predictive  capabilities,   influences   on   and   explanations   of   behavior.   The   findings   may   then   later   be   used   to   promote,  stimulate  and  enable  the  consumption  and  use  of  fashion  in  a  more  sustainable   way.  

2.5.1  Motivation  Hypotheses  

Motivation  may  lie  at  the  base  of  the  requirements  of  sustainable  behavior  but  it  does   not   mean   that   it   necessarily   translates   into   behavior.   However,   there   seems   to   be   evidence   that   those   consumers,   who   do   behave   in   a   sustainable   manner   or   find   sustainability  to  be  an  important  issue  in  the  purchase  situation,  are  more  motivated  by   their   internal   values   (Ölander   &   Thøgersen,   1995)   and   belief   systems   and   thus   more   prone   to   carry   out   this   specific   form   of   behavior   even   though   it   may   entail   certain   opportunity  costs.    

Looking  at  the  attitude  aspect  of  the  motivational  construct,  a  central  issue  in  connection   with   sustainable   fashion   consumption   is   the   importance   of   the   features   of   the   fashion   products.   If   these   take   on   a   much   larger   role   than   the   sustainability   of   the   product   chances   are   that   the   consumer   will   not   choose   sustainable   options   (Gam   et   al.,   2010;  

Joergens,  2006;  Meyer,  2001;  Morgan  &  Birtwistle,  2009;  Peattie,  2001).  

Beliefs   are   a   second   decisive   factor   under   the   motivation   construct.   According   to  

previous   research,   some   consumer   are   motivated   by   a   general   concern   for   the   environment  (an  ethical  reason)  and  the  world  we  live  in  (an  instrumental  reason)  and   therefore  choose  to  behave  with  more  sustainable  consumption  practices  based  upon  an   altruistic   motivation   to   make   things   better   simply   because   it   is   perceived   as   the   right   thing  to  do  (Meyer,  2001).    

The  value  aspect  is  also  important  to  look  at.  As  shown  by  Niiinimäki  (2010),  it  can  be   expected   that   a   certain   group   of   consumers   are   motivated   by   values   in   terms   of   their   identity  as,  what  she  refers  to  as  ethical  hardliners.  This  is  also  supported  by  findings   that  suggest  social  motives  as  a  motivation  for  sustainable  consumption  (Cervellon  et  al.,   2012).  This  goes  both  for  sustainable  fashion  consumption  and  fashion  consumption  in   general   alike   (Goldsmith,   Flynn,   &   Moore,   1996;   Morgan   &   Birtwistle,   2009).  

Furthermore,  it  also  seems  that  when  it  comes  to  fashion  in  itself,  values  connected  to   identity,   self-­‐perception   and   style   are   three   of   the   more   prominent   features   that   consumers  place  an  importance  on  when  choosing  a  product  (Gam  et  al.,  2010;  Meyer,   2001).    

In  accordance  with  this,  the  hypotheses  for  the  motivational  aspect  of  the  MOAB  model   is:  

Hypothesis   1a   (H1a):   Consumers   who   place   a   high   importance   on   other   attributes   (non-­utilitarian)   of   fashion   besides   sustainability,   such   as   design   and  style  with  aim  of  identity  creation  and  popular  pressure  will  most  likely   not  engage  in  sustainable  fashion  purchase  behavior.  

Hypothesis  1b  (H1b):  Consumers  who  express  a  concern  for  the  environment   will  be  more  prone  to  purchase  sustainable  fashion  products.  

Hypothesis  1c  (H1c):  Consumers  with  a  with  a  strong  need  to  fit  in  (popular   pressure)   will   not   engage   in   sustainable   consumption   practices   but   will   engage  in  general  fashion  consumption.  


2.5.2  Ability  Hypotheses  

Ability  is  a  prerequisite  for  sustainable  consumption  behavior  according  to  Thøgersen   and  Ölander  (1995;  1994).  Without  the  necessary  ability,  including  task  knowledge,   habits  and  resources,  it  will  not  be  possible  for  the  consumer  to  carry  out  the  specific   behavior  related  to  the  task.  Still,  ability  is  most  often  dependent  on  motivation  and   opportunity,  and  ability  alone  may  therefore  not  lead  to  the  investigated  behavior  on  its   own.    

Lack   of   knowledge   seems   to   be   one   of   the   biggest   challenges   for   sustainable   fashion   consumption   (Cervellon   &   Wernerfelt,   2012;   Joergens,   2006;   Morgan   &   Birtwistle,   2009).   Joergens   (2006)   points   to   labeling   as   being   one   of   the   deciding   factors   when   ability  is  to  lead  to  sustainable  behavior  but  the  consumer  still  needs  to  have  the  proper   knowledge  about  the  labeling  scheme  and  the  motivation  in  order  to  take  advantage  of  it   (Cervellon   et   al.,   2012).   Trust   is   another   issue   when   dealing   with   sustainable   fashion   consumption.   According   to   previous   studies   lack   of   trust   in   fashion   brands   and   their   claims   presents   a   major   hurdle   in   getting   consumers   to   act   more   sustainably   in   the   purchase  situation  (Cervellon  et  al.,  2012;  Joergens,  2006).  

In  terms  of  resources,  time  and  money  are  the  most  important  ones.  If  consumers  do  not   have  the  time  or  the  financial  resources  to  engage  in  sustainable  purchasing  practices   when  it  comes  to  fashion  consumption,  they  will  simply  opt  out  (Hiller  Connell,  2011).  

Hypothesis   2a   (H2a):   Consumers   will   increasingly   engage   in   sustainable   purchasing   behavior   in   relation   to   fashion   products   as   their   knowledge   of   sustainable  fashion  increases.  

Hypothesis   2b   (H2b):   Consumers   will   as   increasingly   engage   in   sustainable   purchasing   behavior   in   relation   to   fashion   products   as   their   trust   in   brands   and  their  claims  increases.  

Hypothesis   2c   (H2c):   Consumers   will   increasingly   engage   in   sustainable   purchasing   behavior   in   relation   to   fashion   products   as   their   time   and   financial  resources  increase.  


2.5.3  Opportunity  Hypotheses  

Opportunity   factors   are   usually   seen   as   external   influences   only.   However,   it   is   the   argument   of   this   paper   that   they   can   be   divided   into   both   internal   and   external   opportunity   factors.   Opportunity   factors   can   be   internal   in   that   any   opportunity   has   within  it  the  need  for  the  consumer  to  recognize  it  as  an  opportunity  before  he  or  she  is   able  to  take  advantage  of  it.  As  mentioned  in  the  delimitation,  the  focus  of  this  paper  is   only   to   deal   with   the   internal   factors   and   influences   of   behavior   and   the   hypotheses   concerning  opportunity  will  thus  only  deal  with  the  internal  aspect.  

As  pointed  out  in  the  literature  review,  consumers  are  generally  willing  to  make  ethical   and  sustainable  consumption  choices  when  it  does  not  mean  that  they  have  to  go  out  of   their   way   to   do   so.   However,   consumers   need   to   be   both   motivated   and   posses   the   ability  to  take  advantage  of  any  opportunity  before  actual  behavior  can  be  carried  out.  

On   the   other   hand,   they   do   also   need   to   perceive   any   such   opportunity   as   meaningful   (Cervellon   &   Wernerfelt,   2012;   Hiller   Connell,   2011)   in   order   to   take   advantage   of   it.  

This  is  what  Thøgersen  (2010)  refers  to  as  an  “efficacy-­‐related  negative”  influence.  Even   though  a  sustainable  product  option  is  available  where  the  costumer  shops  it  also  needs   to  be  available  at  the  right  price  and  quality  (Joergens,  2006)  in  order  to  constitute  an   actual  opportunity.    

Based  on  this,  the  following  hypotheses  have  been  developed:  

Hypothesis   3a   (H3a):   Consumer   have   to   perceive   the   action   of   acting   in   a   sustainable   manner   when   purchasing   sustainable   fashion   products   as   meaningful   in   order   for   them   to   actually   do   so.   If   they   do   not   perceive   it   to   make  a  difference  then  they  will  not  engage  in  it.  

Hypothesis   3b   (H3b):   If   consumer   perceive   price   and   quality   levels   as   very   important   they   will   not   be   likely   to   engage   in   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior.    





The   methodology   chapter   introduces   the   reader   to   the   methodological   choices   and   considerations   that   make   up   the   research   design   of   this   paper.   In   order   to   develop   a   good   research   design   it   is   also   necessary   to   consider   the   scientific   approach   and   the   theory  of  science  stance,  which  has  been  adopted  in  the  research  for  this  paper.  Next,  an   explanation  of  the  actual  research  design,  including  the  considerations  and  limitations   will  be  presented.  The  data  collection  method  will  thereafter  be  accounted  for  and  the   initial  data  processing  method  and  tools  will  then  be  presented.  Finally,  the  method  of   data  analysis  will  be  considered  and  accounted  for.