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The   discussion   chapter   will   present   a   discussion   of   the   findings   from   the   previous   chapter   in   order   to   test   the   hypotheses   that   were   developed   at   the   beginning   of   this   paper.  The  aim  of  testing  the  hypotheses  is  to  either  verify  or  dismiss  them.  The  chapter   will  furthermore  look  at  the  findings  of  the  analysis  in  comparison  to  the  findings  from   the  literature  review  to  either  support  the  findings  of  previous  research  or  to  highlight   new   findings.   The   aim   of   the   discussion   chapter   is   to   provide   a   solid   basis   for   the   concluding   chapter   of   the   paper   and   its   research   question.   As   with   the   previous   chapters,  this  chapter  will  be  structured  according  to  the  MOAB  framework.  

5.1  Motivation  

In   the   following   section,   the   validation   or   dismissal   of   the   three   hypotheses   for   the   motivation  construct  will  be  discussed.  The  motivation  variables  proved  to  be  the  most   influential  factors  from  the  MOAB  construct  in  explaining  variance  in  behavior  for  one  of   the   dependent   variables   (Fashion   related   behavior)   and   second   most   important   in   explaining  variance  in  behavior  in  the  two  others  (environment  apparel  consumption  &  

shopping  item  quantity),  which  fits  well  with  the  theory  of  the  MOAB  framework.    

5.1.1  Hypothesis  1  (H1a)  

The  extent  to  which  consumers  are  involved  with  their  clothes  proved  important  to  their   engagement  in  fashion  related  behavior,  as  could  be  seen  from  the  variables  making  up   the   motivation   construct.   The   study   also   showed   that   the   opposite   was   true   for   environmental  apparel  consumption  behavior,  namely  that  the  less  involved  consumers   are   with   their   clothes,   the   more   likely   they   are   to   engage   in  environmental   apparel   consumption   behavior.   This   confirms   that   when   consumers   adopt   a   non-­‐utilitarian   relationship  with  clothes,  they  are  less  likely  to  consume  sustainably.  It  was  also  found   that  the  less  important  the  purchase  is  in  itself,  the  more  likely  the  consumer  will  engage   in  environmental   apparel   consumption,   as   can   be   seen   from   table   two   in   the   previous   chapter.  The  same  is  furthermore  supported  in  the  same  table,  where  it  can  be  seen  that   the  enjoyment  of  shopping  plays  a  large  role  in  fashion  related  behavior  and  in  predicting   the   amount   of   products   purchased,   as  hedonic   shopping   values   was   the   second   most  

influential   variable   for   both   shopping   item   quantity   and   environmental   apparel   consumption,   and   the   most   influential   for  fashion   related   behavior   according   to   the   regression  analysis.    

Another   finding   that   points   out   the   same   tendency   supporting   the   hypothesis   is   the   finding  that  as  consumers  perceive  themselves  as  vain  over  modest,  they  tend  go  engage   more   in  fashion   related   behavior,   whereas   the   correlation   between   the   importance   of   self-­respect   to   the   consumer   and  environmental   apparel   consumption   shows   that  self-­

respect   and   independence   are   motivators   of   sustainable   behavior.   These   findings   also   support   that   behavior   related   to   fashion   consumption   is   linked   with   identity   creation   and  hedonic   values.   Consumers   considering   themselves   as  thrifty  and  unorganized   vs.  

indulgent  and  organized   are   prone   to   consume   greater   quantities   of   clothing   items.  

Arguing   that   organized   people   usually   have   a   more   utilitarian   approach   to   things,   supports  the  non-­‐sustainable  consumption  pattern  derived  from  considering  oneself  as   thrifty  and  unorganized.  Lastly,  it  was  found  that  consumers  who  place  importance  on   self-­fulfillment  are  more  likely  to  purchase  greater  quantities  of  clothing  items.    

The   hypothesis   can   therefore   be   verified   based   on   the   following   findings:   Consumers   who  are  highly  involved  with  clothes,  who  place  importance  on  the  act  of  acquisition  and   the  enjoyment  derived  thereof,  as  well  as  consumers  who  purchase  fashion  products  in   connection   with   identity   concepts   are   less   likely   to   engage   en   sustainable   fashion   purchase  behavior.  

5.1.2  Hypothesis  1  (H1b)  

When  testing  hypothesis  H1b,  consumers  who  express  concern  for  the  environment  will   be   more   likely   to   engage   in   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior,   the   regression   analysis  showed  that  consumers  tend  to  purchase  a  smaller  amount  of  fashion  products,   as   their   concern   for   the   environment   increases.   However,   it   was   also   found   that   consumers   at   the   same   time   are   more   likely   to   engage   in   environmental   apparel   consumption  behavior,  as  can  be  seen  from  table  two.  This  hypothesis  can  therefore  also   be  verified  based  on  the  findings  of  this  paper.  


5.1.3  Hypothesis  1  (H1c)  

Looking  at  the  third  hypothesis  for  the  motivation  concept  of  the  MOAB  model,  it  was   interesting  to  find  that  being  an  opinion  leader,  that  is  a  person  who  influences  others  in   purchase  situations,  predicted  sustainable  fashion  consumption  behavior.  This  finding  is   the  same  as  Goldsmith,  Flynn  &  Moore’s  (1996)  research  found  to  be  true  about  fashion   leaders.   It   may   therefore   make   sense   to   reach   out   to   this   group   of   consumers   when   trying  to  promote  more  sustainable  fashion  consumption  patterns  to  consumers  at  large   and  in  this  way  use  fashion  leaders  as  a  spearhead  in  campaigns.  Opposite  to  this,  was   the   finding   that   consumers   who   seek   out   the   opinions   of   others   negatively   predicted   environmental   apparel   consumption,   which   is   in   line   with   the   hypothesis.   This   was   further  supported,  as  the  data  showed  that  the  importance  of  consumers  feeling  a  sense   of   belonging   also   influences   to   which   extend   consumers   engage   in   fashion   related   behavior.  Even  though,  placing  importance  on  feeling  a  sense  of  belonging,  was  the  least   important  of  the  significant  measured  variable  in  this  investigation,  as  can  seen  from  the   beta   values   in   table   two.   It   did   nevertheless   prove   to   be   a   significant   predictor   of   behavior.   Furthermore,   the   fact   that   placing   a   high   importance   on  self-­respect   also   predicted  environmental   apparel   consumption   according   to   the   analysis,   see   table   two.  

This  shows  that  the  consumers  are  not  dependent  on  others  to  influence  their  taste  in   clothes,   which   again   supports   the   hypothesis.   Based   on   these   results,   hypothesis   H1c   will  be  considered  verified.  

5.2  Ability  

The   validation   or   dismissal   of   the   hypotheses   concerning   the   ability   construct   will   be   discussed  in  the  following  section  based  on  the  results  of  the  previous  chapter.  Ability   was   found   to   be   the   most   influential   factor   from   the   MOAB   model   in   explaining   the   variance   in   behavior   for   two   of   the   three   dependent   variables,  environmental   apparel   consumption  and  shopping  item  quantity.    

5.2.1  Hypothesis  2  (H2a)  

The  analysis  showed  that  when  the  subjective  fashion  knowledge  of  consumers  increases   there  is  likely  to  be  an  increase  in  fashion  related  behavior  as  well.  Furthermore,  it  will   most   likely   also   lead   to   a   decrease   in   the   quantity   of   fashion   products   purchased   by  

consumers,  which  can  be  seen  from  the  data  in  table  three  in  the  previous  chapter.  The   data   analysis   also   revealed   that   as   consumers   gain   more   knowledge   about   environmental  apparel,  they  will  likely  also  engage  in  more  sustainable  fashion  purchase   behavior,  which  is  in  accordance  with  hypothesis  H2a.  

Another   interesting   finding   from   the   analysis   was   that   the   use   of   eco-­‐labels   was   predictive   of   the   quantity   of   clothes   that   consumers   purchased.   The   more   consumers   used   eco-­‐labels,   the   more   items   of   clothing   they   purchased.   However,   they   also   displayed  more  sustainable  fashion  purchase  behavior  at  the  same  time.  This  is  probably   because   they   had   the   ability   to   decipher   eco-­‐labels   when   shopping.   Looking   at   these   finding,   hypothesis   H2a   can   be   verified,   as   it   shows   that   increase   knowledge   leads   to   increased  sustainable  fashion  purchase  behavior.  

5.2.2  Hypothesis  2  (H2b)  

Hypothesis  H2b  treats  the  question  of  whether  or  not  trust  is  an  enabling  or  disabling   influencer   of   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior.   In   the   previous   chapter   it   was   found  that,  as  skepticism  of  environmental  claims  from  producers  and  sellers  and  thereby   lack  of  trust  in  these  increases,  so  does  the  amount  of  clothes  purchased.  On  the  other   side,   it   was   also   shown   that   as   lack   of   trust   increases,   so   does   the   engagement   in   sustainable  fashion  purchasing  behavior,  see  table  three.  This  is  in  opposition  to  what   was  hypothesized  in  hypothesis  H2b  and  the  hypothesis  therefore  has  to  be  dismissed   based  on  the  findings  of  this  paper.  

5.2.3  Hypothesis  2  (H2c)  

The  hypothesis  H2c  is  looking  at  the  influence  of  resources  in  terms  of  time  and  money   on   behavior.   In   the   analysis   it   was   shown   that   when   people   get   more   time   (time   resources)   they   also   tend   to   engage   (slightly)   more   in  fashion   related   behavior.   It   was   also   found   that   consumers   tend   to   buy   larger   quantities   of   fashion   products   as   their   financial  resources  increase,  which  in  itself  cannot  be  said  to  be  sustainable  behavior,  if   not  the  contrary.  The  hypothesis  H2c  will  therefore  also  be  concluded  dismissed.  


5.3  Opportunity  

The   hypotheses   concerning   the   opportunity   construct   will   be   discussed   in   order   to   either  validate  or  dismiss  the  hypotheses  based  on  the  findings  of  the  data  analysis.  The   opportunity   factors   from   the   MOAB   model,   were   not   measured   in   depth,   as   they   are   mostly  external  and  therefore  outside  the  scope  of  this  investigation.  Nevertheless,  a  few   of   the   measured   opportunity   variables   proved   to   be   significant,   even   though   only   explaining  a  small  amount  of  the  variance  in  the  measure  behaviors.  

5.3.1  Hypothesis  3  (H3a)  

Hypothesis   H3a   was   concerned   with   whether   or   not   consumers’   perception   of   sustainable  behavior  as  meaningful  had  an  influence  on  actual  behavior.  However,  even   though  attempts  were  made  to  verify  or  dismiss  this,  the  data  did  not  prove  significant   and  the  hypothesis  will  therefore  have  to  be  deemed  inconclusive.  

5.3.2  Hypothesis  3  (H3b)  

The   last   hypothesis   H3b   looked   at   the   importance   consumers   place   on   price   and   price/quality   relationship  and   how   this   influences   behavior.   From   the   analysis   in   the   previous   chapter,   it   can   be   found   that   as   consumers   place   more   importance   on   price   they   become   less   likely   to   engage   in  fashion   related   behavior.   This   is,   however,   not   enough   evidence   to   conclusively   verify   or   dismiss   the   hypothesis   and   it   is   therefore   inconclusive.    

Table  6:  Verification  or  dismissal  of  hypotheses.  

5.4  Barriers  and  Influences  on  Sustainable  Fashion  Purchase  Behavior  

It   is   interesting   to   find   that   all   motivational   hypotheses   were   verified.   When   looking   closer  at  the  results  of  the  hypotheses  concerning  the  motivation  concept,  it  can  be  seen   that   it   entails   both   findings   that   enable   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior   and   findings  that  disable  them.  First,  it  was  found  that  consumers  are  motivated  to  engage  in   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior   by   concern   for   the   environment,   as   well   as   utilitarian   shopping   values,   which   are   enabling   factors.   On   the   other   hand,   consumers   with   a   need   to   fit   in   are   generally   inhibited   from   engaging   in   sustainable   fashion   purchase   behavior   by   this   need.   Furthermore,   it   was   found   in   the   main   analysis   that   lower  involvement   with   clothes   meant   that   consumers   were   more   likely   to   purchase   fashion  in  a  sustainable  manner.  

As   for   the   hypotheses   concerning   the   ability   concept,   only   one   was   verified.   This   hypothesis  confirmed  that  consumer  knowledge  of  sustainable  fashion  and  the  impact  of   fashion   enables   and   influences   consumers   to   engage   in   sustainable   behavior.   Even   though   only   one   of   the   three   hypotheses   were   verified,   it   was   also   found   that   lack   of   trust   in   the   claims   of   producers   also   enables   consumers   to   make   more   sustainable   decisions   when   shopping.   Furthermore,   it   was   found   that   environmental   apparel   knowledge,   the   consequences   of   fashion   production   and   label   use   all   were   enablers   of   sustainable  fashion  purchase  behavior.    

Finally,  both  hypothesis  concerning  opportunity  factors  were  found  to  be  inconclusive.  

The   data   did   however   show   an   increase   in   behavior   related   to   fashion   based   on   the   importance  of  the  price  of  products  and  living  in  an  urban  vs.  rural  area  but  it  did  not   prove   much   about   influences   on   sustainable   consumption   behavior.   This   was,   as   previously   mentioned,   most   likely   due   to   an   insufficient   measurement   of   the   opportunity  construct.  

Overall,   motivation   is   an   important   factor   when   trying   to   determine   the   best   place   to   utilize  resources  in  trying  to  promote  more  sustainable  fashion  consumption  behavior   but  even  more  so  is  ability,  as  can  be  seen  from  the  results  in  table  one.  This  means  that   successfully   changing   the   ability   factors   would   lead   to   a   greater   change   in   behavior   relatively   speaking.   Looking   at   the   factors   that   were   of   influence   under   the   ability   construct,   it   would   make   the   most   sense   to   engage   in   education   of   costumers,   which   should   attempt   to   raise   awareness   about   the   production   and   selection   of   sustainable   choices   in   the   purchase   situation.   However,   it   should   also   focus   on   the   effects   on   the   environment.  This  would  be  affecting  both  ability  and  motivational  factors.  Another  area   relevant   to   focus   on   is   the   training   of   consumers   in   task   knowledge   and   information   processing,   such   as   the   use   and   understanding   of   eco-­‐labels,   which   proved   to   have   an   important  effect  when  adopted  by  consumers.