• Ingen resultater fundet


Aaker, D. A., Kumar, V., Day, G., & Lawley, M. (2007). Marketing research: The second Pacific rim edition.

Marketing Research: The Second Pacific Rim Edition.

Adhani, N. I., & Rambli, D. R. A. (2012). A survey of mobile augmented reality applications. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies.

Algharabat, R., & Dennis, C. (2010). Using authentic 3D product visualisation for an electrical online retailer.

Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9(2), 97-115.

Aloini, D., Bessant, J., Martini, A., & Von Stamm, B. (2013). Search practices for discontinuous innovation:

scale development and construct validation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 1-22.


Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability:

Findings from Sweden. The Journal of marketing, 53-66.

Archer, S. (2015). Snapchat Has Taken a Lead in One of the Most Disruptive Areas of Tech. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/snapchat-takes-lead-in-disruptive-area-of-tech-2016-6

Ariely, D. (2000). Controlling the Information Flow: Effects on Consumers’ Decision Making and Preferences.

Journal of Consumer Research, 27(2), 233-248. doi:10.1086/314322

Athanassopoulos, A. D. (2000). Customer satisfaction cues to support market segmentation and explain switching behavior. Journal of Business Research, 47(3), 191-207.

Azuma. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4), 355-385. doi:10.1162/pres.1997.6.4.355

Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE computer graphics and applications, 21(6), 34-47.

Babin, B. J., Lee, Y.-K., Kim, E.-J., & Griffin, M. (2005). Modeling consumer satisfaction and word-of-mouth:

restaurant patronage in Korea. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(3), 133-139.

Bacile, T. J., Ye, C., & Swilley, E. (2013). From Firm-Controlled to Consumer-Contributed: Consumer Co-Production of Personal Media Marketing Communication. Journal of Interactive Marketing.


Bäckström, K., & Johansson, U. (2006). Creating and consuming experiences in retail store environments:

Comparing retailer and consumer perspectives. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13(6), 417-430. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2006.02.005

Bagdare, S., & Jain, R. (2013). Measuring retail customer experience. International Journal of Retail &

Distribution Management, 41(10), 790-804.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research.

Administrative science quarterly, 421-458.

Bajura, M., Fuchs, H., & Ohbuchi, R. (1992). Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient. ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 26(2), 203-210.

Baron, S., Harris, K., & Davies, B. J. (1996). Oral participation in retail service delivery: a comparison of the roles of contact personnel and customers. European Journal of Marketing, 30(9), 75-90.

Bauer, H. H., Falk, T., & Hammerschmidt, M. (2006). eTransQual: A transaction process-based approach for capturing service quality in online shopping. Journal of Business Research, 59(7), 866-875.


Baum. (1901). The Master Key: An Electrical Fairy Tale Founded Upon the Mysteries of Electricity and the Optimism of Its Devotees. It was Written for Boys, But Others May Read it: Bowen-Merrill Company.

Baum, & Spann, M. (2014). The interplay between online consumer reviews and recommender systems: An experimental analysis. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 19(1), 129-162.

Bearden, W. O., & Teel, J. E. (1983). Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports.

Beck, M., & Crié, D. (2018). I virtually try it … I want it ! Virtual Fitting Room: A tool to increase on-line and off-line exploratory behavior, patronage and purchase intentions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, 279-286. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.08.006

Benbasat, I., & Barki, H. (2007). Quo vadis TAM? Journal of the association for information systems, 8(4), 7.

Benjamin, K. (2009). Augmented Reality – Battle of the Brands, Revolution Magazine. 41-43.

Berry, L. L., Bolton, R. N., Bridges, C. H., Meyer, J., Parasuraman, A., & Seiders, K. (2010). Opportunities for Innovation in the Delivery of Interactive Retail Services. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 24(2), 155-167. doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2010.02.001

Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). Understanding information systems continuance: An expectation-confirmation model. MIS Quarterly, 25(3), 351-370.

Blaikie, N. (2010). Designing social research: The logic of anticipation (2. ed. ed.). Cambridge, UK.

Blázquez, M. (2014). Fashion Shopping in Multichannel Retail: The Role of Technology in Enhancing the Customer Experience. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(4), 97-116.


Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: what is it? How is it measured?

Does it affect loyalty? Journal Of Marketing, 73(3), 52-68.

Brasel, S. A., & Gips, J. (2014). Tablets, touchscreens, and touchpads: How varying touch interfaces trigger psychological ownership and endowment. Journal Of Consumer Psychology, 24(2), 226-233.


Bruno, F., Cosco, F., Angilica, A., & Muzzupappa, M. (2010). Mixed prototyping for products usability evaluation. Paper presented at the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference.

Bryman, A. (2015). Social research methods: Oxford university press.

Brynjolfsson, Hu, & Rahman. (2013). Competing in the age of omnichannel retailing. MIT Sloan Management Review, 54(4), 23.

Brynjolfsson, E., Hu, Y., & Rahman, M. S. (2013). Competing in the Age of Omnichannel Retailing. Mit Sloan Management Review, 54(4), 23-29.

Bulearca, M., & Tamarjan, D. (2010). Augmented reality: A sustainable marketing tool. Global business and management research: An international journal, 2(2), 237-252.

Çadırcı, T. O., & Köse, Ş. G. (2016). Augmented reality as a tool to enhance the experiential value of online shopping: The future of fashion retailing. In Handbook of research on global fashion management and merchandising (pp. 280-304): IGI Global.

Carmigniani, J., Furht, B., Anisetti, M., Ceravolo, P., Damiani, E., & Ivkovic, M. (2011). Augmented reality technologies, systems and applications. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 51(1), 341-377.


Cascales, A., Laguna, I., Pérez-López, D., Perona, P., & Contero, M. (2013). An experience on natural sciences augmented reality contents for preschoolers. Paper presented at the International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality.

Caudell, T. P., & Mizell, D. W. (1992). Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes. Paper presented at the System Sciences, 1992. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Hawaii International Conference on.

Chau, P. Y., & Lai, V. S. (2003). An empirical investigation of the determinants of user acceptance of internet banking. Journal of organizational computing and electronic commerce, 13(2), 123-145.

Chen, & Tan, J. (2004). Technology Adaptation in E-commerce:: Key Determinants of Virtual Stores Acceptance. European Management Journal, 22(1), 74-86. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2003.11.014

Chen, & Wells, W. D. (1999). Attitude toward the site. Journal of advertising research, 39(5), 27-38.

Cheng, L.-K., Chieng, M.-H., & Chieng, W.-H. (2014). Measuring virtual experience in a three-dimensional virtual reality interactive simulator environment: a structural equation modeling approach. Virtual Reality, 18(3), 173-188. doi:10.1007/s10055-014-0244-2

Childers, T. L., Carr, C. L., Peck, J., & Carson, S. (2001). Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behavior. Journal of Retailing, 77(4), 511-535. doi:10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00056-2 Cho, H., & Schwarz, N. (2012). I like your product when I like my photo: Misattribution using interactive

virtual mirrors. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(4), 235-243.

Chou, H.-J. (2009). The effect of experential and relationship marketing on customer value: a case study of international american casual dining chains in Taiwan. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 37(7).

Chung, J., & Tan, F. B. (2004). Antecedents of perceived playfulness: an exploratory study on user acceptance of general information-searching websites. Information & Management, 41(7), 869-881.


Chuttur, M. Y. (2009). Overview of the technology acceptance model: Origins, developments and future directions. Working Papers on Information Systems, 9(37), 9-37.

Clawson, T. (2009). Augmented reality—Don’t believe the hype. Revolution Magazine, 44-46.

Cook, G. (2014). Customer experience in the omni-channel world and the challenges and opportunities this presents. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 15(4), 262-266.


Craig, A. B. (2013). Understanding augmented reality: Concepts and applications: Newnes.

Cuomo, M., Tortora, D., & Metallo, G. (2014). In store augmented reality: Retailing strategies for smart communities. Mondo Digitale, 13, 49.

Cyr, D., & Bonanni, C. (2005). Gender and website design in e-business. International Journal of Electronic Business, 3(6), 565-582.

Dabholkar, P. A., & Bagozzi, R. (2002). An attitudinal model of technology-based self-service: Moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factors. Journal Of The Academy Of Marketing Science, 30(3), 184-201.

Dacko, S. G. (2017). Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 124, 243-256. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.09.032

Dagger, T. S., Sweeney, J. C., & Johnson, L. W. (2007). A Hierarchical Model of Health Service Quality.

Journal of Service Research, 10(2), 123-142. doi:10.1177/1094670507309594

Daponte, P., De Vito, L., Picariello, F., & Riccio, M. (2014). State of the art and future developments of the Augmented Reality for measurement applications. Measurement, 57, 53-70.


Davis. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology.

MIS Quarterly, 319-340.

Davis, Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management science, 35(8), 982-1003.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psycology, 22(14), 1111-1132.

Delone, W. H., & Mclean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success: A Ten-Year Update. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 9-30.


Demirkan, H., & Spohrer, J. (2014). Developing a framework to improve virtual shopping in digital malls with intelligent self-service systems. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(5), 860-868.


Denegri-Knott, J., & Molesworth, M. (2010). Concepts and practices of digital virtual consumption.

Consumption, Markets and Culture, 13(2), 109-132.

Dennis, C., Joško Brakus, J., Gupta, S., & Alamanos, E. (2014). The effect of digital signage on shoppers' behavior: The role of the evoked experience. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2250-2257.


Dillman, D. A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method (Vol. 19): Wiley New York.

Downes, E. J., & McMillan, S. J. (2000). Defining interactivity: A qualitative identification of key dimensions.

New Media and Society, 2(2), 157-179. doi:10.1177/14614440022225751

Drascic, D., & Milgram, P. (1996). Perceptual issues in augmented reality. Paper presented at the Stereoscopic displays and virtual reality systems III.

Edvardsson, B. (2005). Service quality: beyond cognitive assessment. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 15(2), 127-131. doi:10.1108/09604520510585316

Eighmey, J., & McCord, L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of Business Research, 41(3), 187-194.

Eyüboğlu, E. (2011). Augmented reality as an exciting online experience: Is it really beneficial for brands?

International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 3(1), 113-123.

Fassnacht, M., & Koese, I. (2006). Quality of electronic services: Conceptualizing and testing a hierarchical model. Journal of Service Research, 9(1), 19-37.

Faust, F., Roepke, G., Catecati, T., Araujo, F., Ferreira, M. G. G., & Albertazzi, D. (2012). Use of augmented reality in the usability evaluation of products. Work, 41(Supplement 1), 1164-1167.

Feiner, S., MacIntyre, B., & Seligmann, D. (1992). Annotating the real world with knowledge-based graphics on a see-through head-mounted display. Paper presented at the proceedings of Graphics Interface.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: (And sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll) (3. ed. ed.). London.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.

Flick, U. (2011). Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project.

Los Angeles, [Calif.

Fogg, B. (2002). Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Ubiquity, 2002(December), 2. doi:10.1145/764008.763957

Fonseca, D., Martí, N., Redondo, E., Navarro, I., & Sánchez, A. (2014). Relationship between student profile, tool use, participation, and academic performance with the use of Augmented Reality technology for visualized architecture models. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 434-445.


Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer - The Swedish experience. Journal Of Marketing, 56(1), 6-21. doi:10.2307/1252129

Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: nature, purpose, and findings. The Journal of Marketing, 7-18.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing Research, 39-50.

Foroudi, P., Gupta, S., Sivarajah, U., & Broderick, A. (2018). Investigating the effects of smart technology on customer dynamics and customer experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 271-282.


Fründ, J., Gausemeier, J., Matysczok, C., & Radkowski, R. (2004). Using augmented reality technology to support the automobile development. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design.

Fulgoni, G. M. (2014). "Omni-Channel" Retail Insights and The Consumer's Path-to-Purchase: How digital has transformed the way people make purchasing decisions. Journal of advertising research, 54(4), 377-380. doi:10.2501/JAR-54-4-377-380

Garg, R., & Telang, R. (2012). Inferring app demand from publicly available data.

Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., & Straub, D. W. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model.

MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 51-90.

Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to Sustain the Customer Experience:: An Overview of Experience Components that Co-create Value With the Customer. European Management Journal, 25(5), 395-410. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2007.08.005

Gervautz, M., & Schmalstieg, D. (2012). Anywhere interfaces using handheld augmented reality. Computer, 45(7), 26-31.

Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Framework. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 1-14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2009.01.001 Grohmann, B., Spangenberg, E. R., & Sprott, D. E. (2007). The influence of tactile input on the evaluation of

retail product offerings. Journal of Retailing, 83(2), 237-245. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2006.09.001 Haeckel, S. H., Carbone, L. P., & Berry, L. L. (2003). How to lead the customer experience. Marketing

Management, 12(1), 18-18.

Hassenzahl, M., Diefenbach, S., & Goritz, A. (2010). Needs, affect, and interactive products - Facets of user experience. Interacting With Computers, 22(5), 353-362. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.002

Hassenzahl, M., Diefenbach, S., & Göritz, A. (2010). Needs, affect, and interactive products – Facets of user experience. Interacting with Computers, 22(5), 353-362. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.002

Hausman, A. V., & Siekpe, J. S. (2009). The effect of web interface features on consumer online purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 5-13. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.018

Hawkes, D. (1997). Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Medicine. In The Perception of Visual Information (pp. 361-390): Springer.

Heilig, M. L. (1962). Sensorama simulator. In: Google Patents.

Henderson, S., & Feiner, S. (2010). Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 16(1), 4-16.

Hilken, T., de Ruyter, K., Chylinski, M., Mahr, D., & Keeling, D. I. (2017). Augmenting the eye of the beholder: exploring the strategic potential of augmented reality to enhance online service experiences.

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(6), 884-905. doi:10.1007/s11747-017-0541-x Hirschman, E. C., & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). Hedonic consumption: emerging concepts, methods and

propositions. The Journal of Marketing, 92-101.

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow Online: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 23-34. doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2008.10.003

Honeycutt, C. (2005). Hazing as a process of boundary maintenance in an online community. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2), <xocs:firstpage xmlns:xocs=""/>-<xocs:firstpage xmlns:xocs=""/>.

Hristov, L., & Reynolds, J. (2015). Perceptions and practices of innovation in retailing: Challenges of definition and measurement. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 43(2), 126-147.

Hsiao, C. H., Chang, J. J., & Tang, K. Y. (2016). Exploring the influential factors in continuance usage of mobile social Apps: Satisfaction, habit, and customer value perspectives. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 342-355. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2015.08.014

Huang, T.-L., & Hsu Liu, F. (2014). Formation of augmented-reality interactive technology's persuasive effects from the perspective of experiential value. Internet Research, 24(1), 82-109.

Huang, T.-L., & Liao, S. (2015). A model of acceptance of augmented-reality interactive technology: the moderating role of cognitive innovativeness. Electronic Commerce Research, 15(2), 269-295.


Huard, P. (2017). L’Oréal joins perfect corp’s youcam make up. Retrieved from https://www.loreal.com/media/news/2017/july/loreal-joins-perfect-corps-youcam-makeup-app Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent

IKEA. (2018). About the IKEA Group. Retrieved from https://www.ikea.com/gb/en/this-is-ikea/about-the-ikea-group/

Immonen, M., & Sintonen, S. (2015). Evolution of technology perceptions over time. Information Technology

& People, 28(3), 589-606.

Javornik, A. (2016a). Augmented reality: Research agenda for studying the impact of its media characteristics on consumer behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 252-261.


Javornik, A. (2016b). ‘It’s an illusion, but it looks real!’ Consumer affective, cognitive and behavioural responses to augmented reality applications. Journal of marketing management, 32(9-10), 987-1011.


Jiang, Z., & Benbasat, I. (2007). Research note—investigating the influence of the functional mechanisms of online product presentations. Information Systems Research, 18(4), 454-470.

Johnson, L. G., Edwards, P., & Hawkes, D. (2003). Surface transparency makes stereo overlays unpredictable:

The implications for augmented reality. Studies in health technology and informatics, 131-136.

Jung, K., Lee, S., Jeong, S., & Choi, B.-U. (2008). Virtual tactical map with tangible augmented reality interface. Paper presented at the Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008 International Conference on.

Kang, J.-Y. M., Mun, J. M., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2015). In-store mobile usage: Downloading and usage intention toward mobile location-based retail apps. Computers in Human Behavior, 46, 210-217.


Kassaye, W. W., & Hutto, A. (2016). Advertising Implications of Millennials' Motives and Device-Platform Consideration Sets: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Promotion Management, 22(1), 16-33.

Kato, H., & Billinghurst, M. (1999). Marker tracking and hmd calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencing system. Paper presented at the Augmented Reality, 1999.(IWAR'99) Proceedings. 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on.

Kim, & Forsythe, S. (2008). Adoption of Virtual Try-on technology for online apparel shopping. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 22(2), 45-59. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20113

Kim, & Hyun, M. (2016). Predicting the use of smartphone-based Augmented Reality (AR): Does telepresence really help? Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 28-38. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.001 Kim, J., Fiore, A. M., & Lee, H.-H. (2007). Influences of online store perception, shopping enjoyment, and shopping involvement on consumer patronage behavior towards an online retailer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(2), 95-107. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2006.05.001

Kim, J., & Forsythe, S. (2007). Hedonic usage of product virtualization technologies in online apparel shopping. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(6), 502-514.


Kim, S. C., Yoon, D., & Han, E. K. (2016). Antecedents of mobile app usage among smartphone users. Journal of Marketing Communications, 22(6), 653-670. doi:10.1080/13527266.2014.951065

Kiousis, S. (2002). Interactivity: A concept explication. New Media and Society, 4(3), 355-383.


Klaus, P. (2013). The case of Amazon.com: towards a conceptual framework of online customer service experience (OCSE) using the emerging consensus technique (ECT). Journal of Services Marketing, 27(6), 443-457. doi:10.1108/JSM-02-2012-0030

Klimmt, C., Hartmann, T., & Frey, A. (2007). Effectance and control as determinants of video game enjoyment. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(6), 845-847. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9942

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques: New Age International.

Kowatsch, T., & Maass, W. (2010). In-store consumer behavior: How mobile recommendation agents influence usage intentions, product purchases, and store preferences. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 697-704. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.01.006

Lai Xing, N., Soh Khim, O., & Andrew, Y. (2011). GARDE: a gesture-based augmented reality design evaluation system. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM), 5(2), 85.

Lamanauskas, V., Pribeanu, C., Vilkonis, R., Balog, A., Iordache, D., & Klangauskas, A. (2007). Evaluating the educational value and usability of an augmented reality platform for school environments: some preliminary results. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 4th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Engineering Education (Agios Nikolaos, Crete Island, Greece, 24-26 July, 2007).

Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering, Published by World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society Press.

Lee, Fiore, A., & Kim, J. (2006). The role of the technology acceptance model in explaining effects of image interactivity technology on consumer responses. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 34(8), 621-644. doi:10.1108/09590550610675949

Lee, & Park, J. (2014). Enhancing Virtual Presence in E-Tail: Dynamics of Cue Multiplicity. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(4), 117-146. doi:10.2753/JEC1086-4415180405

Lee, G., & Lin, H. (2005). Customer perceptions of e-service quality in online shopping. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 33(2), 161-176. doi:10.1108/09590550510581485

Lee, K., & Chung, N. (2008). Empirical analysis of consumer reaction to the virtual reality shopping mall.

Computers in Human Behavior, 24(1), 88-104.

Lee, K.-Y. (2012). Consumer processing of virtual experience in e-commerce: A test of an integrated framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2134-2142. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.018 Leeflang, P., Verhoef, P. C., Dahlstrom, P., & Freundt, T. (2014). Challenges and solutions for marketing in a

digital era. European Management Journal, 32(1), 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2013.12.001

Legris, P., Ingham, J., & Collerette, P. (2003). Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Information & Management, 40(3), 191-204.

Lemke, F., Clark, M., & Wilson, H. (2011). Customer experience quality: an exploration in business and consumer contexts using repertory grid technique. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(6), 846-869. doi:10.1007/s11747-010-0219-0

Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69-96. doi:10.1509/jm.15.0420

Lewis, R. C., & Bernard, H. B. (1983). The Marketing Aspects of Service Quality. Chicago: American Marketing Association, Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing, 99-117.

Li, Daugherty, T., & Biocca, F. (2001). Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: A protocol analysis. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 13-30.

Li, C. (2005). Augmented Reality in Medical. Advanced Interface Design, 49.

Li, H., Daugherty, T., & Biocca, F. (2002). Impact of 3-D Advertising on Product Knowledge, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention: The Mediating Role of Presence. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 43-57.

Liao, T. (2014). Augmented or admented reality? The influence of marketing on augmented reality technologies. Information, Communication & Society, 1-17. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2014.989252 Lissitsa, S., & Kol, O. (2016). Generation X vs. Generation Y–A decade of online shopping. Journal of

Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 304-312.

Livingston, M. A., Rosenblum, L. J., Julier, S. J., Brown, D., Baillot, Y., Swan, I., . . . Hix, D. (2002). An augmented reality system for military operations in urban terrain. Retrieved from

Lo, S.-K., & Lie, T. (2008). Selection of communication technologies—A perspective based on information richness theory and trust. Technovation, 28(3), 146-153.

Lombard, M., & Snyder-Duch, J. (2001). Interactive advertising and presence: A framework. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1(2), 56-65.

Lusch, R. F., & Vargo, S. L. (2006). Service-dominant logic: reactions, reflections and refinements. Marketing Theory, 6(3), 281-288. doi:10.1177/1470593106066781

Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. F. (2006). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach (3rd ed. ed.): United Kingdom: Pearson Education.

Marinova, D., Singh, J., Brady, M., Arnold, T., Brown, T., de Ruyter, K., . . . Challagalla, G. (2017). Getting Smart. Journal of Service Research, 20(1), 29-42. doi:10.1177/1094670516679273

Martin, C. L., & Pranter, C. A. (1989). Compatibility management: customer-to-customer relationships in service environments. Journal of Services Marketing, 3(3), 5-15.

Martínez, H., Skournetou, D., Hyppölä, J., Laukkanen, S., & Heikkilä, A. (2014). Drivers and bottlenecks in the adoption of augmented reality applications. Journal ISSN, 2368, 5956-5956.

Mascarenhas, O. A., Kesavan, R., & Bernacchi, M. (2006). Lasting customer loyalty: a total customer experience approach. Journal of consumer marketing, 23(7), 397-405.

Mathwick, C., Malhotra, N., & Rigdon, E. (2001). Experiential value: conceptualization, measurement and application in the catalog and Internet shopping environment☆11☆This article is based upon the first author’s doctoral dissertation completed while at Georgia Institute of Technology. Journal of Retailing, 77(1), 39-56. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00045-2

May, T. (2011). Social research: issues, methods and process (4. ed. ed.). Maidenhead, England: ebrary, Inc.

McLean, G., Al-Nabhani, K., & Wilson, A. (2018). Developing a Mobile Applications Customer Experience Model (MACE)- Implications for Retailers. Journal of Business Research, 85, 325-336.


McLean, G., & Osei-Frimpong, K. (2017). Examining satisfaction with the experience during a live chat service encounter-implications for website providers. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 494-508.


McLean, G., & Wilson, A. (2016). Evolving the online customer experience … is there a role for online customer support? Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 602-610. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.084 Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard business review, 85(2),


Milgram, P., & Kishino, F. (1994). A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems, 77(12), 1321-1329.

Moe, W. (2003). Buying, searching, or browsing: Differentiating between online shoppers using in-store navigational clickstream. Journal Of Consumer Psychology, 13(1-2), 29-39.

Mummalaneni, V. (2005). An empirical investigation of Web site characteristics, consumer emotional states and on-line shopping behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 526-532. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(03)00143-7

Nambisan, P. J. H. (2011). Managing customer experiences in online product communities. Journal of Business Research, 64(8), 889-895. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.09.006

Newhagen, J. E., Cordes, J. W., & Levy, M. R. (1995). Nightly@nbc.com: Audience Scope and the Perception of Interactivity in Viewer Mail on the Internet. Journal of Communication, 45(3), 164-175.


Newman, I., & Benz, C. R. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum: SIU Press.

Nicolau, S., Soler, L., Mutter, D., & Marescaux, J. (2011). Augmented reality in laparoscopic surgical oncology. Surgical oncology, 20(3), 189-201.

Nielsen, J. (1999). Designing web usability: The practice of simplicity: New Riders Publishing.

Nisbett, R. E., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment.

Norman, D. (2002). Emotion & design: attractive things work better. interactions, 9(4), 36-42.

Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., & Yung, Y.-F. (2000). Measuring the Customer Experience in Online Environments: A Structural Modeling Approach. Marketing Science, 19(1), 22-42.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric methods. In: New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oh, L.-B., & Teo, H.-H. (2010). Consumer Value Co-creation in a Hybrid Commerce Service-Delivery System. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 14(3), 35-62. doi:10.2753/JEC1086-4415140303

Olsson, T., Lagerstam, E., Kärkkäinen, T., & Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, K. (2013). Expected user experience of mobile augmented reality services: a user study in the context of shopping centres. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17(2), 287-304. doi:10.1007/s00779-011-0494-x

Ono, A., Nakamura, A., Okuno, A., & Sumikawa, M. (2012). Consumer motivations in browsing online stores with mobile devices. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 16(4), 153-178.

Owyang, J. (2010). Disruptive Technology–The New Reality Will be Augmented. Customer Relationship Management Magazine, 23(2), 32-33.

Padilla-Meléndez, A., Del Aguila-Obra, A. R., & Garrido-Moreno, A. (2013). Perceived playfulness, gender differences and technology acceptance model in a blended learning scenario. Computers & Education, 63, 306-317.

Pantano. (2009). Augmented reality in retailing of local products of Magna Grcia: consumer's response.

International Journal of Management Cases, 11(2), 206-213.

Pantano. (2014). Innovation drivers in retail industry. International Journal of Information Management, 34(3), 344-350. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2014.03.002

Pantano, Priporas, C.-V., & Dennis, C. (2017). Managing consumers' dynamics within the emerging smart retail settings: Introduction to the special issue. In (Vol. 124, pp. 225-227).

Pantano, Rese, A., & Baier, D. (2017). Enhancing the online decision-making process by using augmented reality: A two country comparison of youth markets. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 38, 81-95. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.05.011

Pantano, & Servidio, R. (2012). Modeling innovative points of sales through virtual and immersive technologies. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(3), 279-286.


Pantano, E., & Naccarato, G. (2010). Entertainment in retailing: The influences of advanced technologies.

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 17(3), 200-204. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.03.010 Papagiannidis, S., Pantano, E., See-To Eric, W. K., Dennis, C., & Bourlakis, M. (2017). To immerse or not?

Experimenting with two virtual retail environments. Information Technology & People, 30(1), 163-188. doi:doi:10.1108/ITP-03-2015-0069

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perc. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12.

Park, J. (2008). Augmented reality based re-formable mock-up for design evaluation. Paper presented at the Ubiquitous Virtual Reality, 2008. ISUVR 2008. International Symposium on.

Parment, A. (2013). Generation Y vs. Baby Boomers: Shopping behavior, buyer involvement and implications for retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2), 189-199.

Phillips, D. M., Olson, J. C., & Baumgartner, H. (1995). Consumption visions in consumer decision making.

ACR North American Advances.

Piekarski, W., Gunther, B., & Thomas, B. (1999). Integrating virtual and augmented realities in an outdoor application. Paper presented at the Augmented Reality, 1999.(IWAR'99) Proceedings. 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard business review, 76, 97-105.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage:

Harvard Business Press.

Piotrowicz, W., & Cuthbertson, R. (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue Information Technology in Retail:

Toward Omnichannel Retailing. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(4), 5-15.


Podsakoff, N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Poncin, I., & Mimoun, M. S. B. (2014). The impact of “e-atmospherics” on physical stores. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(5), 851-859.

Poushneh, A., & Vasquez-Parraga, A. Z. (2017). Discernible impact of augmented reality on retail customer's experience, satisfaction and willingness to buy. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34, 229-234. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.10.005

Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation.

Journal Of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5-14.

Preece, J. (2000). Online Communities: Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability. Industrial Management

& Data Systems, 100(9), 459-460. doi:10.1108/imds.2000.100.9.459.3

Priporas, C.-V., Stylos, N., & Fotiadis, A. K. (2017). Generation Z consumers' expectations of interactions in smart retailing: A future agenda. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, 374-381.


Puccinelli, N. M. G. R. C. G. D. R. P. D. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing:

Understanding the Buying Process. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 15-30.


Pullman, M. E., & Gross, M. A. (2004). Ability of experience design elements to elicit emotions and loyalty behaviors. Decision sciences, 35(3), 551-578.

Rawson, A., Duncan, E., & Jones, C. (2013). The truth about customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 91(9), 90-98.

Rese, A., Baier, D., Geyer-Schulz, A., & Schreiber, S. (2017). How augmented reality apps are accepted by consumers: A comparative analysis using scales and opinions. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 306-319. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.10.010

Rese, A., Schreiber, S., & Baier, D. (2014). Technology acceptance modeling of augmented reality at the point of sale: Can surveys be replaced by an analysis of online reviews? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(5), 869-876. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.02.011

Rigby, D. (2011). The future of shopping. Harvard business review, 89(12).

Rosa, J., & Malter, A. (2003). E-(embodied) knowledge and e-commerce: How physiological factors affect online sales of experiential products. Journal Of Consumer Psychology, 13(1-2), 63-73.

Rose, S., Clark, M., Samouel, P., & Hair, N. (2012). Online Customer Experience in e-Retailing: An empirical model of Antecedents and Outcomes. Journal of Retailing, 88(2), 308-322.


Rosenberg, L. B. (1992). The Use of Virtual Fixtures as Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments. Retrieved from

Ryan, M.-L. (1994). Immersion vs. Interactivity: Virtual Reality and Literary Theory. Postmodern Culture, 5(1). doi:10.1353/pmc.1994.0058

Sadowski, W., & Stanney, K. (2002). Presence in virtual environments.

Saunders, M. N. (2011). Research methods for business students, 5/e: Pearson Education India.

Schembri, S. (2006). Rationalizing service logic, or understanding services as experience? Marketing Theory, 6(3), 381-392. doi:10.1177/1470593106066798

Schlosser, A. E. (2003). Experiencing products in the virtual world: the role of goal and imagery in influencing attitudes versus purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2), 184-198.

Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential marketing. Journal of marketing management, 15(1-3), 53-67.

Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1993). Re-examining perceived ease of use and usefulness: A confirmatory factor analysis. MIS Quarterly, 517-525.

Seiders, K., Voss, G. B., Grewal, D., & Godfrey, A. L. (2005). Do satisfied customers buy more? Examining moderating influences in a retailing context. Journal Of Marketing, 69(4), 26-43.

Sekhavat, Y. A. (2017). Privacy preserving cloth try-on using mobile augmented reality. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 19(5), 1041-1049.

Serazio, M. (2015). Selling (digital) millennials: The social construction and technological bias of a consumer generation. Television & New Media, 16(7), 599-615.

Shankar, V., Kleijnen, M., Ramanathan, S., Rizley, R., Holland, S., & Morrissey, S. (2016). Mobile shopper marketing: Key issues, current insights, and future research avenues. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 34, 37-48.

Shobeiri, S., Mazaheri, E., & Laroche, M. (2018). Creating the right customer experience online: The influence of culture. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(3), 270-290.


Song, J. H., & Zinkhan, G. M. (2008). Determinants of perceived Web site interactivity. Journal of Marketing, 72(2), 99-113. doi:10.1509/jmkg.72.2.99

Sorooshian, S., Salimi, M., Salehi, M., Nia, N. B., & Asfaranjan, Y. S. (2013). Customer Experience about Service Quality in Online Environment: A Case of Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1681-1695. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.101

Steuer, J. (1992). Defining virtual reality - dimensions determining telepresence. Journal Of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.

Sumadio, D. D., & Rambli, D. R. A. (2010). Preliminary evaluation on user acceptance of the augmented reality use for education. Paper presented at the Computer Engineering and Applications (ICCEA), 2010 Second International Conference on.

Tang, A., Biocca, F., & Lim, L. (2004). Comparing differences in presence during social interaction in augmented reality versus virtual reality environments: An exploratory study. Proceedings of PRESENCE, 204-208.

Tellis, G. J. (1997). Effective frequency: One exposure or three factors? Journal of advertising research, 37(4), 75-80.

Thirumalai, S., & Sinha, K. K. (2011). Customization of the online purchase process in electronic retailing and customer satisfaction: An online field study. Journal of Operations Management, 29(5), 477-487.


Thompson, C. J., Locander, W. B., & Pollio, H. R. (1989). Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential-Phenomenology. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(2), 133-146.

Tsikriktsis, N. (2002). Does Culture Influence Web Site Quality Expectations? Journal of Service Research, 5(2), 101-112. doi:10.1177/109467002237490

Udo, G. J., Bagchi, K. K., & Kirs, P. J. (2010). An assessment of customers’e-service quality perception, satisfaction and intention. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 481-492.

van Der Heijden. (2003). Factors influencing the usage of websites: the case of a generic portal in The Netherlands. Information & Management, 40(6), 541-549. doi:10.1016/S0378-7206(02)00079-4 Van Der Heijden. (2004). User Acceptance of Hedonic Information Systems. MIS Quarterly, 28(4), 695-704.

Van Der Heijden, H. (2004). User acceptance of hedonic information systems. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 28(4), 695-704.

van Noort, G., Voorveld, H. A. M., & van Reijmersdal, E. A. (2012). Interactivity in Brand Web Sites:

Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Responses Explained by Consumers' Online Flow Experience.

Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(4), 223-234. doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2011.11.002

Varadarajan, R., Srinivasan, R., Vadakkepatt, G. G., Yadav, M. S., Pavlou, P. A., Krishnamurthy, S., & Krause, T. (2010). Interactive Technologies and Retailing Strategy: A Review, Conceptual Framework and Future Research Directions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 24(2), 96-110.


Venkatesh, V., & Bala, H. (2008). Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management science, 46(2), 186-204.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology:

Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 425-478.

Verhagen, T., Vonkeman, C., Feldberg, F., & Verhagen, P. (2014). Present it like it is here: Creating local presence to improve online product experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 270-280.


Verhoef, Kannan, P. K., & Inman, J. J. (2015). From Multi-Channel Retailing to Omni-Channel Retailing:

Introduction to the Special Issue on Multi-Channel Retailing. Journal of Retailing, 91(2), 174-181.


Verhoef, Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer Experience Creation: Determinants, Dynamics and Management Strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 31-41. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2008.11.001

Verhoef, P., Franses, P., & Hoekstra, J. (2002). The effect of relational constructs on customer referrals and number of services purchased from a multiservice provider: Does age of relationship matter? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 202-216. doi:10.1177/0092070302303002

Vieira, V. A. (2010). Visual aesthetics in store environment and its moderating role on consumer intention.

Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9(5), 364-380. doi:10.1002/cb.324

Von Ahn, L., & Dabbish, L. (2004). Labeling images with a computer game. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.

Vrechopoulos, A. P., O’keefe, R. M., Doukidis, G. I., & Siomkos, G. J. (2004). Virtual store layout: an experimental comparison in the context of grocery retail. Journal of Retailing, 80(1), 13-22.


Wang, R. J.-H., Malthouse, E. C., & Krishnamurthi, L. (2015). On the Go: How Mobile Shopping Affects Customer Purchase Behavior. Journal of Retailing, 91(2), 217-234. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2015.01.002 WARC. (2015). Mobile apps are the future of media. Retrieved from


Welch, K. (2017). How augmented reality will augment your revenue. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/?toURL=https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescommunicati onscouncil/2017/04/27/how-augmented-reality-will-augment-your-revenue/&ref

West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables:

Problems and remedies.

Wither, J., DiVerdi, S., & Höllerer, T. (2009). Annotation in outdoor augmented reality. Computers &

Graphics, 33(6), 679-689.

Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225-240.


Wixom, B. H., & Todd, P. A. (2005). A theoretical integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance.

Information Systems Research, 16(1), 85-102.

Xu, J., Forman, C., Kim, J. B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2014). News media channels: Complements or substitutes?

Evidence from mobile phone usage. Journal Of Marketing, 78(4), 97-112.

Yang, H. E., & Wu, C. C. (2009). Effects of image interactivity technology adoption on e-shoppers' behavioural intentions with risk as moderator. Production Planning & Control, 20(4), 370-382.


Yaoyuneyong, G., Foster, J., Johnson, E., & Johnson, D. (2016). Augmented Reality Marketing: Consumer Preferences and Attitudes Toward Hypermedia Print Ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 16(1), 16-30. doi:10.1080/15252019.2015.1125316

Yeo, C. T., Ungi, T., Paweena, U., Lasso, A., McGraw, R. C., & Fichtinger, G. (2011). The effect of augmented reality training on percutaneous needle placement in spinal facet joint injections. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 58(7), 2031-2037.

Yim, M. Y.-C., Chu, S.-C., & Sauer, P. L. (2017). Is Augmented Reality Technology an Effective Tool for E-commerce? An Interactivity and Vividness Perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 39, 89-103.


Yim, M. Y.-C., Cicchirillo, V. J., & Drumwright, M. E. (2012). The impact of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(2), 113-128.

Yoon, C., & Kim, S. (2007). Convenience and TAM in a ubiquitous computing environment: The case of wireless LAN. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6(1), 102-112.


Yousafzai, S. Y., Foxall, G. R., & Pallister, J. G. (2007). Technology acceptance: a meta-analysis of the TAM:

Part 1. Journal of Modelling in Management, 2(3), 251-280.

Yuan, Y.-H. E., & Wu, C. K. (2008). Relationships among experiential marketing, experiential value, and customer satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(3), 387-410.

Zhang, P., & Li, N. (2005). The importance of affective quality. Communications of the ACM, 48(9), 105-108.


Zhou, F., Duh, H. B.-L., & Billinghurst, M. (2008). Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: A review of ten years of ISMAR. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM


Appendix 1: Reliability Analysis 1.1 Utilitarian

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.888 .888 6

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_14 s_15 s_27 s_16 s_17 s_28

s_14 1.000 .724 .657 .454 .502 .454

s_15 .724 1.000 .691 .435 .475 .413

s_27 .657 .691 1.000 .396 .402 .384

s_16 .454 .435 .396 1.000 .834 .863

s_17 .502 .475 .402 .834 1.000 .853

s_28 .454 .413 .384 .863 .853 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_14 26.89 34.316 .669 .595 .874

s_15 26.89 34.639 .653 .617 .876

s_27 26.81 35.056 .593 .534 .885

s_16 26.93 29.624 .762 .781 .859

s_17 26.89 30.301 .789 .779 .854

s_28 26.62 31.393 .767 .804 .858

1.2 Hedonic

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.762 .762 3

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_10 s_11 s_12

s_10 1.000 .585 .550

s_11 .585 1.000 .414

s_12 .550 .414 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_10 11.47 3.851 .675 .456 .583

s_11 11.54 4.436 .575 .354 .703

s_12 11.33 5.095 .543 .316 .737

1.3 Customer Experience

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.907 .907 6

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_30 s_20 s_21 s_18 s_19 s_29

s_30 1.000 .731 .644 .507 .558 .466

s_20 .731 1.000 .630 .698 .680 .678

s_21 .644 .630 1.000 .505 .421 .423

s_18 .507 .698 .505 1.000 .834 .750

s_19 .558 .680 .421 .834 1.000 .765

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_30 25.89 34.024 .687 .619 .899

s_20 26.23 32.091 .835 .719 .877

s_21 25.99 35.971 .613 .499 .909

s_18 25.62 32.809 .800 .757 .883

s_19 25.93 32.909 .791 .765 .884

s_29 25.95 33.019 .740 .657 .892

1.4 Vividness

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.817 .813 3

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_1 s_2 s_3

s_1 1.000 .481 .510

s_2 .481 1.000 .785

s_3 .510 .785 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_1 10.87 4.784 .524 .277 .879

s_2 11.13 3.275 .744 .625 .667

s_3 11.10 3.304 .769 .639 .638

1.5 Interactivity

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.834 .835 3

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_4 s_5 s_6

s_4 1.000 .699 .560

s_5 .699 1.000 .623

s_6 .560 .623 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_4 10.63 5.334 .700 .515 .768

s_5 10.68 4.647 .747 .567 .716

s_6 10.79 5.126 .643 .419 .821

1.6 Informativeness

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based

on Standardized

Items N of Items

.718 .718 3

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

s_7 s_9 s_8

s_7 1.000 .434 .455

s_9 .434 1.000 .489

s_8 .455 .489 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Squared Multiple Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item


s_7 10.78 4.687 .516 .266 .656

s_9 10.60 4.728 .541 .295 .625

s_8 10.61 4.397 .557 .312 .605

Appendix 2: Harman’s Single Factor Analysis

Total Variance Explained


Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total

% of Variance


% Total

% of Variance



1 12.480 52.000 52.000 12.480 52.000 52.000

2 1.730 7.207 59.206

3 1.317 5.488 64.695

4 1.107 4.613 69.307

5 .853 3.555 72.862

6 .755 3.146 76.008

7 .674 2.809 78.817

8 .602 2.507 81.324

9 .537 2.237 83.561

10 .521 2.172 85.733

11 .466 1.941 87.674

12 .438 1.825 89.499

13 .359 1.497 90.997

14 .327 1.362 92.359

15 .311 1.294 93.653

16 .249 1.037 94.690

17 .230 .959 95.649

18 .215 .895 96.544

19 .186 .776 97.320

20 .163 .680 98.001

21 .132 .551 98.552

22 .128 .532 99.084

23 .119 .494 99.578

24 .101 .422 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Appendix 3: Average Variance Extracted (AVE)


AVE 0.37 0.33 0,35 0.56 0,39 0,35

12/05/2018, 03*12

Dear All,

We are two Master students from Copenhagen Business School. We are currently collecting data for our Master Thesis on Virtual Reality technology.

Therefore, we need your help to complete our survey. It will take only 3-5 minutes and all the questions will be related to your experience with the IKEA Place app.

The survey is completely anonymous and the collected data will be used for academic purposes only.

This is NOT for commercial purposes.

Thank you for your help and effort! :) Best regards,

Fabio & Alessandro

What is your age



Male Female


Employee Self-employee Unemployed Freelancer Student

The way the IKEA Place app displays its products is attractive

Strongly Disagree Disagree

Somewhat Disagree